These questions often relate to understanding the responsibilities for contaminated sites in a regulatory and/or legal context. These approaches are also integral to environmental due diligence for mergers and acquisitions. Techniques such as chemical fingerprinting, chemical fate and transport modelling, hydrogeological investigation, and reconstructing operational histories, among others are at the heart of many investigations. These and newer techniques, such as multivariate receptor statistical modelling, continue to evolve and have become more sophisticated over the past decade, as have the types of problems to which they are applied.
The types of problems to which environmental forensic techniques are commonly applied include: