Physiology of Sleep & Wakefulness is the study of the neuroscientific and physiological basis of the nature of sleep and its functions. Sleep is broadly classified into two types’ rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM or non-REM) sleep.
Physiology of sleep involves a brief study of brain mechanisms which control wakefulness. Wakefulness is due the activation of basal forebrain structures and brainstem that disrupt sleep oscillations and exhibits changes in extraneuronal milieu, with great modifications in the blood flow parameters of cerebrum. If Sleep is characterized with rapid eye movements during sleep then it is REM sleep which is associated with bodily muscle movements and dreaming.
Absence of sleep in individuals & higher life forms results in serious physiological consequences which further leads to severe sleep disorders like fragmented sleep, Insomnia, narcolepsy, primary neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s diseases and circadian rhythm sleep disorders.