The pleura is a thin tissue covered by a layer of cells that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest wall. The pleural space is the area between the lungs and the chest wall. Many different conditions can cause pleural problems which leads to pleural disorders like:
Pneumothorax: A collection of air within the pleural cavity, arising either from the outside or from the lung. Pneumothoraces may be traumatic, iatrogenic, or spontaneous. A tension pneumothorax is a particular type of pneumothorax where the air may enter on inspiration, but cannot exit on expiration. Each breath increases the amount of trapped air in the chest cavity, leading to further lung compression.
Pleural Effusion: A fluid accumulation within the pleural space. Abnormal collections of pleural fluid may be due to excessive fluid volume, decreased fluid protein, heart failure, bleeding, infections, inflammation, malignancies, or perforation of thoracic organs.