Sleep apnea is a parasomnia occurs when breathing is disrupted during sleep it is characterized by pauses in breathing or instances of shallow breathing in sleep. Every pause in breathing, called an apnea.
There are two forms of sleep apnea namely obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea, in Obstructive sleep apnea breathing stops because of airway obstruction by the tissue of the throat. In central sleep apnea, (CSA), the brain centres’ fail to send message to the breathing muscle. OSA is much more common than CSA.
The treatment generally includes oxygen and drug therapy, behavioral changes, mechanical ventilation, oral appliances, surgery etc. the most common surgery is uvulopalatopharngyoplasty.
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure is most effective and safe way of treating obstructive sleep apnea, it is made up of an air pump that blows air under low pressure to which a mask is attached; CPAP helps in stopping the snoring.