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Measurement and Instrumentation

Measurement is the process of determining the amount, degree or capacity by comparison with the accepted standards of the system units being used. Instrumentation is a technology of measurement which serves sciences, engineering, medicine and etc. The main fields consist of Transducers, Data acquisition system, Bio medical Engineering and instrumentation. Instrument is a device for determining the value or magnitude of a quantity or variable. Electronic instrument is based on electrical or electronic principles for its measurement functions. Instrumentation is the variety of measuring instruments to monitor and control a process. It is the art and science of measurement and control of process variables within a production, laboratory, or manufacturing area. An instrument is a device that measures a physical quantity such as flow, temperature, level, distance, angle, or pressure. Instruments may be as simple as direct reading thermometers or may be complex multi-variable process analyzers. Instruments are often part of a control system in refineries, factories, and vehicles. The control of processes is one of the main branches of applied instrumentation. Instrumentation can also refer to handheld devices that measure some desired variable. Diverse handheld instrumentation is common in laboratories, but can be found in the household as well. For example, a smoke detector is a common instrument found in most western homes. Instruments attached to a control system may provide signals used to operate solenoids, valves, regulators, circuit breakers, or relays. These devices control a desired output variable, and provide either remote or automated control capabilities. These are often referred to as final control elements when controlled remotely or by a control system. A transmitter is a device that produces an output signal, often in the form of a 4–20 mA electrical current signal, although many other options using voltage, frequency, pressure, or ethernet are possible. This signal can be used for informational purposes, or it can be sent to a PLC, DCS, SCADA system, LabVIEW or other type of computerized controller, where it can be interpreted into readable values and used to control other devices and processes in the system.Control instrumentation plays a significant role in both gathering information from the field and changing the field parameters, and as such are a key part of control loops.

 

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