On the other hand, cerebrovascular dysfunction may lead to electrocardiographic disorders and cardiac rhythm disturbances. Subarachnoid bleeding may lead to dramatic electrocardiographic changes and even ventricular fibrillation, possibly due to QT-interval prolongation. Panic disorders and emotional distress such as the Takotsubo syndrome may give rise to (supra)ventricular tachycardias with ensuing transient left ventricular dysfunction. Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) has major effects on neurocognitive functioning.
The future of therapeutic approaches in neurocardiology lies both in novel treatment as in applying scientific integrative medical ideas taking into account concurrent chronic degenerative and vascular disorders and interactions of multiple drug and non-drug treatments. In this respect, vagal stimulation, exercise training, electrical neurostimulation, music therapy, and –recently– renal denervation have become interesting options in the treatment of angina pectoris, heart failure, and hypertension.
In the beginning of 2011, the ICIN-Netherlands Heart Institute requested the Royal Academy of Sciences (KNAW) to set up an Academy Colloquium. Academy colloquia are initiatives of the KNAW consisting of symposia dedicated to an interesting scientific topic for a limited audience of 50 national and international individuals (15 speakers, 35 attendees).