Neuro immunology is a field combining neuroscience, the study of the nervous system, and immunology, the study of the immune system. Neuroimmunologists seek to better understand the interactions of these two complex systems during development, homeostasis, and response to injuries. A long-term goal of this rapidly developing research area is to further develop our understanding of the pathology of certain neurological diseases, some of which have no clear etiology. Neuroimmunology contributes to development of new pharmacological treatments for several neurological conditions.
Many types of interactions involve both the nervous and immune systems including but not limited to the physiological functioning of the two systems in both health and disease, malfunction of either and or both systems that leads to disorders, and the physical, chemical, and environmental stressors that affect the two systems on a daily basis. Neuroimmunological research into these diseases has yielded evidence including the absence of simple Mendelian inheritance patterns, global transcriptional dysregulation, multiple types of pathogenic RNA alterations, and many more. Research has shown that deregulation of correlated epigenetic processes in ASDs can alter gene expression and brain function without causing classical genetic lesions which are more easily attributable to a cause and effect relationship.