Pediatric Hematology & Oncology deals with the study of immunology, pathology, and pharmacology in relation to blood diseases and cancer in children. Pediatric Hematology is a branch of medicine concerning the diagnosis and treatment of blood diseases in childhood and Pediatric Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer in children.
The most common pediatric hematological disorders areIron Deficiency Anemia, Sickle Cell Anemia, Thalassemia, Hemophilia, Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura, etc.
The causes for most of the childhood cancers are not known. A small percentage of cancers can be due to the genetic disorder Down syndrome, other inherited genetic abnormalities, and radiation treatment. Environmental causes like exposure to infectious and toxic substances are unlikely to cause childhood cancer.
Oncologists use many tests to diagnose cancer and find out if it has spread to another part of the body, called metastasis. For most types of cancer, a biopsy or surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible is the only way to make a definitive diagnosis. If a biopsy is not possible, the doctor may suggest other tests that will help make a diagnosis. Imaging tests may be used to find out whether the cancer has spread.