Vaccine Research & Development – The field deals collectively with various kinds of vaccines, their synthesis, therapeutic effects and clinical developments. The field entirely covers all the advancements, developments of vaccines in every field of vaccination. Vaccines treating malaria, cancer and many other diseases can be collectively studied under this field. Vaccine can be defined as a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically consists of a disease-causative microorganism which is often prepared from killed or inactivated forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. This agent stimulates the bodys immune system to recognize it as threat, destroy it, and maintain a record of it, and any such successive similar infection can be more easily recognized by the immune system and destroyed.