Veterinary clinical sciences are one of the fields of veterinary sciences focusing on the clinical aspects of issues dealing with animals mainly pertaining to companion animals. The Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine conducts discovery, instruction, and service relevant to companion animals, horses, food and fiber animals, and exotic, wildlife, and zoological species. It includes various sub disciplines of Radiology, Anesthesiology, Cardiology, Neurology, Dermatology, Small Animal Surgery, Small Animal Medicine, Ophthalmology, Equine Surgery, Equine Medicine, and animal reproduction. Veterinary clinical sciences mainly explore the ways different drugs, treatments and clinical procedures affect animals in need of care. It concentrates on problems related to the causes, diagnosis and treatment of problems affecting animals. Veterinary clinical sciences deal with studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or device is safe and effective for treatment of diseases in animals. Clinical sciences are the best way to study diseases and effective treatments because the disease being studied and treated is an organic event taking place spontaneously in nature, rather than being imposed within an artificial laboratory environment. Clinical studies follow strict regulatory standards. These standards protect animals and help produce reproducible study results. It includes research studies that advances knowledge and improves the health and wellbeing of animals. All clinical science research studies are carefully planned and experts reviewing the proposed experiment involving animals weigh several considerations before approving each study.