A Descriptive Case-Control Study of 100 Patients of Acanthosis Nigricans and its Utility to Detect Metabolic Syndrome
Background: Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a dermatosis that manifests as asymptomatic and symmetrical darkening in intertriginous areas and is associated with endocrine disturbances or malignancy. The features of metabolic syndrome (MetS) include hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low high‑density lipoprotein cholesterol, central obesity and hypertension.
Aims and Objectives: (1) To study the fasting and post-prandial blood sugar level, lipid profile, blood pressure and waist circumference in patients with AN and compare the values in healthy controls. (2) To determine the association between the presence of benign acquired AN and MetS (biochemical parameters and anthropometric variables).
Materials and Methods: A descriptive case–control study with 100 cases of AN and 100 healthy controls without AN was conducted between December 2016 and November 2017 to assess the association between AN and metabolic variables.
Results: In this study, out of the 100 cases evaluated, 57% had MetS diagnosed by the National Cholesterol Education Program and Adult Treatment Panel III, of which 35 were females and 22 males. Among 100 cases of AN, 31 had hypertension (P = 0.438), 57 had elevated triglycerides (P = 0.007), 33 had elevated fasting blood sugar (P = 0.061), 76 had decreased HDL cholesterol (P = 0.000045), and 78 had increased WC (P = 0.00463). The association of AN with MetS was highly significant in the study population (P = 0.000017; as P < 0.05‑significant; P < 0.01‑highly significant). Conclusion: In this study, 57 patients with AN had deranged metabolic variables suggesting the presence of MetS. This study shows that AN could be a marker for MetS. Hence, clinicians should assess patients with AN for metabolic and biochemical parameters to advise regarding lifestyle modification and prevent future cardiovascular complications