Research and Reviews in Psychology

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An Illustrated Review on Nonionic Surfactant Vesicles (Niosomes) as an Approach in Modern Drug Delivery: Fabrication, Characterization, Pharmaceutical, and Cosmetic Applications

Background: Giles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a classified neurodevelopmental motor disorder that manifests in involuntary movement. Early onset symptoms of GTS present inventory movement known as tics. The causes of GTS syndrome are thought to be associated with the globus pallidus which is associated with involuntary and voluntary movements. There are a variety of treatment options available ranging from psychopharmacological interventions to psychological therapy to help manage symptoms of Giles de la Tourette syndrome. In severe cases neurosurgical intervention known as Deep brain stimulation is required to manage and eliminate tics . Previously Thalamic sites were targets for DBS. New evidence indicates that the GP is an effective site for DBS when treating GTS. Search methods and choice criteria: PRISMA guidelines were used to structure and conducted this systematic review. A variety of data bases were used to obtain relevant research papers, these included: PubMed , Science Direct , Medline & google scholar. This Is a systematic review which aims to critically appraise evidences examining the effectiveness of DBS targeting of the GP in reducing tic severity , in GTS in comparison to thalamic sites. Authors conclusions : The GP is an effective target for DBS when treating GTS,it reduces tic severity . improves quality of life and has fewer side effects than Thalamic targets.

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