ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND DIURETIC ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF XYLOPIA AETHIOPICA (Dunal) A. Rich. (ANNONACEAE) FRUITS ON WISTAR ALBINO RAT.
This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and diuretic activities of ethanol dried fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica using adult wistar albino rats as experimental model. Experiment was conducted in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Eighteen rats irrespective of gender were used for the study of anti-inflammatory activity and the rats were divided into six groups of three rats each. Data were analyzed using special package for social scientist (SPSS) version 20.0 and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), means separation was done by Ducan multiple range test (DMRT) at 5% level of significance. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated on egg albumen-induced paw oedema in albino rats. A positive control containing 200mg of Aspirin and a negative control containing normal saline was used. The negative control showed a high inflammation within the time intervals while the positive control showed a low inflammation. The extract of the fruit exhibited anti-inflammatory property at different time levels that was dose dependent. The average inflammation decreased as time intervals increased (5.83 ± 0.29 to 4.00 ± 0.00 mm). The percentage inflammation increased as interval decreased (86.40 ± 4.96 to 91.53 mm) and the highest inhibition was seen in the extract of the highest concentration (4.54 ± 12.10 mm) for 500mg. A significant difference (p<0.05) exists among the dose levels. The diuretic effect was evaluated using twenty-one adult rats of seven groups of three rats each. Ethanol fruit extract of the plant was administered intra-peritoneally to the rats at doses of 500, 250, 125, 62.25 and 31.5mg/kg body weight respectively. Furosemide (40mg/kg) was used as positive control. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring the urine volume and urinary electrolyte excretion. The extract produced a significant increase in urine volume at 500 and 250mg/kg (4.67 ± 0.12 ml and 3.27 ± 0.25 ml) respectively and enhanced urinary excretion of sodium, chloride and potassium significantly (P< 0.05) but had no significant effect on bicarbonate (p>0.05). Findings of this study revealed that ethanol dried fruit extract of Xylopia aethiopica has potential as anti-inflammation and diuretic properties.