Bacterial Stress Response and Cross Resistance to Antibiotics in the Light of Natural Selection
Bacterial cells have to face many challenges to survive in the form of environmental stresses. These environmental stresses elicit a strong protective response. It has been understood that these protective responses negatively influence the susceptibility of stress-exposed bacterial cells to antibiotics. This concept of stressinduced cross resistance to antibiotics is probably a consequence of natural selection or due to directed mutagenesis. According to the theory of natural selection, it might be due to the activation of non-specific stress responses following exposure to one type of stress while directed mutagenesis explains it as a consequence of accelerated random mutations following stress exposure. The activation of stress response systems in biofilms increase the frequency of genetic transfers that help them acquire resistance. However, these hypothesized cross-talks should be precisely studied for definitive conclusions.