Biomaterials & Architecture; a Possible Future: Bio Printing Architecture
The Zeitgeist of the time we live in deserves that we give it feedback, and it is about time we start to do so. We, the inhabitants of the twenty-first century, should start to design “from DNA to the planet” with the commitment to achieve sustainability. We are witnessing the rapid advancement in sustainable building materials and fabrication tools. These materials are self-healing, autonomous, and morphogenetic. Thus, possessing an inherent capacity to remodel themselves in response to their surrounding environment using the minimum resources, and depositing density and strength in response to various mechanical stimuli. This is what bio mineralization in bone tissue performs on a microdeposition scale. Thus, in the current work, we employ a bio-inspired model of bio mineralization and extrusion bio printing to propose autonomously bio mineralized materials. Here, the integration of osteosarcoma (Saos-2) cells, encapsulated in GelMA hydrogel, is proposed to enable their growth, differentiation, and bio mineralization, as a proof of concept. This is proved through the effect of the geometrical design on cell viability, through comparing the shape fidelity and biocompatibility between three different geometrical designs. The results revealed that the orthogonal square plan geometry achieved the highest cells viability and shape fidelity followed by the deferential growth pattern.