Journal of Biochemical Engineering & Bioprocess Technology

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Compounds of Apatite: Wet Formation, Thermal Transformations

Steelmaking industries consume the majority of chromium and manganese ferroalloys to impart several properties in steel and also for other purposes. The quality of ore governs the process kinetics as well as the process economy of the ferroalloy industry. The present study demonstrates the thermal transformation behavior of chromite and manganese ores with varying compositions. Simultaneous thermal analysis is employed for such ore samples where the transformation of mineral phases is correlated with the thermos gram characteristics and quantified. Phase, microstructure, and compositional analysis results of individual ores corroborated with thermal analysis are in good agreement. Chromite samples are ferruginous with goethite and gibbsite contents, whereas manganese ores vary in composition and also exhibit multiple and overlapping transformations. Conversions to thermal energy from other form of energy may occur with transformation. Conversion among non-thermal forms of energy may occur with fairly high efficiency, though there is always some energy dissipated thermally due to friction and similar processes. Sometimes the efficiency is close to system such as when potential energy is converted to kinetic energy as an object falls in a vacuum. This also applies to the opposite case for example, an object in an elliptical orbit around another body converts its kinetic energy into gravitational potential energy distance from the other object as it moves away from its parent body. When it reaches the furthest point, it will reverse the process, accelerating and converting potential energy into kinetic. Since space is a near-vacuum, this process has close to transparent efficiency.

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