Detection of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) in Cloven-hoofed Animals from Different Areas of Bangladesh
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is considered as one of the key threats to livestock industries worldwide. This investigation reported the circulation and detection of FMDV in sheep, goats and cattle at different regions of Bangladesh and the major risk factors for occurrence of the Foot and Mouth Disease. For this, clinical samples were collected from tongue epithelium, tissue from inter digital space, saliva, feces and milk from sheep, goats and cattle suspected to be infected with FMDV. Four different areas of Bangladesh were selected for sample collection (Savar, Sirajganj, Bandarban and Chittagong). During the study period, all samples were subjected to RNA extraction followed by conventional one step RT-PCR amplification of the VP1 gene, which is the most variable region of FMDV genome. FMD positive isolates were subjected to multiplex RT-PCR using specific primer sets to differentiate FMDV serotypes. There is limited epidemiological data in Bangladesh defining the circulation of FMD virus in sheep and goats population. A total of 145 outbreaks from sheep (90) and goats (55) were reported at Savar area during winter, 2016. Morbidity rate was found 20% and 18.19% in sheep and goats respectively. Whereas, mortality rate was 2.22% and 1.81% in sheep and goats respectively. Detection of circulating FMDV serotypes and disease monitoring of animals entering Bangladesh are crucial components for an effective national FMDV control program in Bangladesh.