Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
The far more major predisposing factor for all-cause morbidity and death worldwide is systemic arterial hypertension, which is linked to an elevated risk of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Although proper treatment of hypertension reduces the worldwide burden of disease and mortality, less than half of persons with hypertension are aware of their condition, and many more are aware but not treated or managed insufficiently. Hypertension is caused by a complex interaction of environmental and pathophysiological variables affecting many systems, as well as a genetic predisposition. Accurate standardized Blood Pressure (BP) measurement, assessment of the patients' predicted risk of atherosclerotic CVD and evidence of target-organ damage, and detection of secondary causes of hypertension and the presence of comorbidities are all part of the evaluation of patients with hypertension (such as CVD and kidney disease). Lifestyle improvements, such as dietary changes and increased physical activity, are useful in decreasing blood pressure and preventing hypertension and its CVD complications. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, dihydropyridine calciumchannel blockers, and thiazide diuretics are first-line antihypertensive drugs that are very efficient in decreasing blood pressure and preventing CVD outcomes in most patients.