Epigenetic Markers in Cardiac Fibrosis
Organ fibrosis and failure are linked to one-third of all fatalities that occur naturally over the world. Cardiovascular fibrosis is a particularly important fibrotic illness, and knowing its etiopathogenesis may help to reduce cardiac morbidity and death. Cardiac fibrosis, like other cardiovascular disorders is caused by a complex combination of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental variables like nutrition and lifestyle. As a result of this information, biomarkers and therapeutic targets for patient management have been identified. Cardiac fibrosis is a cardiac remodeling process caused by injury or stresses that result in the replacement of functional myocardium with non-functional fibrotic tissue, resulting in ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction, as well as atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and heart failure. Cardiac myositis makes up about 75% of the total volume of typical cardiac tissue, yet they only make up 30% of the cells. Nonmyocytes make up the majority of the remaining cells in the myocardium: 60% endothelial cells, 13% fibroblasts, and 6% vascular smooth muscle cells. Other cell types, such as hematopoietic-derived cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, are seen in tiny numbers.