Electrochemical Biosensor for Interleukin-10 Detection in Real Human Plasma Patients: Heart Failure Biomedical Application
In the present study, we have analyzed the real human plasma effect for the detection of the cytokine biomarker; interleukin-10 (IL- 10) using an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) based biosensor. IL-10 is one of the many antigens that are secreted in acute stages of inflammation after left ventricle assisted device (LVAD) implantation for patients suffering from heart failure (HF). For this interest, a biosensor was developed in order to increase the sensitivity of detection in complex medium and in the presence= of other interferences: interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) that are also secreted after LVAD implantation. The anti-human IL-10 monoclonal antibodies (anti-IL-10 mAb’s) were immobilized onto gold microelectrodes through functionalization with selfassembled monolayers (SAMs) of 16-Mercaptohexadecanoic acid b(MHDA) followed by carbodiimide chemistry. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was applied during the microelectrode functionalization process to characterize the gold microelectrode surface properties. EIS analysis was made for studying the human plasma effect and for cytokine detection. The biosensor was highly selective and sensitive toward the corresponding cytokines IL-10. These were detected in real human plasma samples diluted 1000-fold, by using EIS: before LVAD implantation, after 24 hrs, and after 72 hrs of LVADs implantation at 16.9 ± 1.5 pg/mL, 62.4 ± 2.6 pg/ mL, and 37.6 ± 6.2 pg/mL, respectively. IL-10 was also detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the same plasma samples for the same periods of LVAD implantation at 11.3 pg/mL, 57.2 pg/mL, and 34.0 pg/mL, respectively. The present electrochemical biosensor is very promising for an alternative, rapid, low cost, and sensitive technique for cytokine detection that could be at the patient’s bedside using point-of-care testing (POCT). This can provide rapid quantitative information to clinicians and doctors in order to predict the first signs of inflammation after LVAD implantation.