Estimation of IgE levels and basophile count in type I hypersensitivity
Background: Hypersensitivity is a state of overreaction to wide range allergens due to many factors including genetic predisposition and environmental and other factors. Hypersensitivity classified into four major types according to their mechanisms and immune mediators. Type I hypersensitivity also known as anaphylactic or immediate type due to the short time required for symptoms to appear, it is mostly IgE involved.
Aim of the study: To identify the most common categories of type l hypersensitivity in addition to assess the correlation between IgE levels, Basophile count with the strength of immune response to certain allergens in different cases and various groups of patients by estimation of IgE levels and basophile count.
Material and method: Three ml of venous blood samples from 20 patients with confirmed type I hypersensitivity, 13 patients were females and 7 males in addition to 20 healthy control samples were enrolled in this study, all samples were subjected for (ELISA test) (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay) to estimate the IgE Levels, in addition to a drop of capillary blood by finger puncture for preparation of blood film for blood basophile count. Cases included systemic anaphylaxis and localized hypersensitivity reaction such as hay fever, asthma, food allergies and eczema. Case sheet was organized for each case.
Results: A highly statistical significant variation both in IgE levels and basophile blood count between allergic patient group and healthy control group was observed, the P value was 0.002 and 0.000 respectively. Nostatically significant differences between males and females in frequency of the anaphylaxis with 0.119 P value. The higher value of type I sensitivity was coetaneous eczema 35%, then food allergy 20%, hay fever and insect venom15% for each, and the lowest was penicillin sensitivity 5%. Followed by asth. 10%.
Conclusion: The highest cases of type l Hypersensitivity was eczema , food allergy insect venom, hay fever , asthma and penicillin sensitivity there was a highly significant positive correlation between IgE levels and basophile count with appearance of symptoms.