Etiology, Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Diagnosis of Marek’s Disease in Chickens: A Mini Review
Marek’s disease (MD) is a worldwide tumor forming disease in chickens, which is highly contagious and lymphoproliferative in nature. The Marek’s disease virus (MDV) also known as alpha- herpesvirus causes T cell lymphoma and infiltration of nerves and organs by lymphocytes in chickens. The disease is diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for its tumor causing Meq gene, virus isolation and antigen enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA). New approaches of diagnosis of MDV include Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), real time PCR (quantitative-PCR), nested PCR and immunofluorescence, which are proving milestones in detecting Marek’s disease at early stage. CVI988is the gold standard for protecting chickens against MDV. This review describes the etiology, symptoms, characteristics, epidemiology, pathogenesis, serotypes of MDV and principle, merits and demerits of various diagnostic methods of MDV and its prevention. A new electrochemical technique i.e. DNA biosensor/ genosensor for simple, fast, sensitive and specific detection of MDV is proposed.