Exercise and Ergonomics on the International Space Station and Orion Spacecraft
It is widely accepted that astronauts living in space undergo many physical and psychological challenges as a consequence of being in microgravity. The ergonomics of living in microgravity demands countermeasures and mitigation strategies which today and in part, are delivered by undergoing defined, rigorous exercise regimes. On the International Space Station, it is common for astronauts to spend many months working and living in microgravity and to sustain a healthy crew, it is essential to implement a ‘design-make-test-refine’ cycle of exercise which can be accommodated in the surroundings, is optimized both in terms of intensity and duration and is enjoyable for the astronaut. This review focuses on the current exercise equipment and regimes used on board the International Space station and present a forward-looking vision which may support future long duration missions in space craft where exercise is adapted to the size of the habitat such as Orion.