Management of Intestinal Leakage Induced Peritonitis in Small Animals
Inflammation of peritoneum is known as peritonitis which is serious and often fatal condition in dogs and cats. It may be short or long term, localized or generalized, primary or secondary, aseptic or septic. Secondary septic peritonitis is the more common form in the dog and cat, most commonly resulting from leakage of Gastrointestinal (GI) contents from a compromised GI tract. GI tract may be compromised due to dehiscence of intestinal surgical wound, ulcerative lesions, ischemic intestinal injury, penetrating abdominal wound, intraluminal obstruction etc. Tentative diagnosis can be made through history, physical findings, clinical signs, biochemistry, diagnostic imaging but for confirmation abdominocentesis is the method of choice. Survival of patient is more rely on early prompt diagnosis and management. For treatment, stabilization of patient in terms of fluid, pain, oxygen level along with broad spectrum antimicrobial therapy is needed as soon as animal is suspected for peritonitis. Surgical intervention after stabilization of patient for correction or removal of cause is the definitive treatment for peritonitis. Thorough lavage and open drainage of peritoneal fluid is necessary for generalized peritonitis for better results along with sterile abdominal bandaging which is changed twice daily or even more based on condition. Closure of wound is performed once there is no drainage from wound for at least 24 hours.