Metabolic Disturbances for Instance Diabetes and Renal Diseases
Hematological analysis is an important aid for clinical diagnosis of systemic, infectious and some parasitic diseases. Hematopoiesis maintains adequate balance between production and destruction of blood cells. Due to the decrease in the bone marrow's ability to respond to stimuli such as bleeding, infection and cytotoxic damage during ageing this modulation becomes imbalanced. Various studies have shown that malaria infections were associated with complications such as cerebral involvement, renal involvement and anemia among people of older age groups. Respiratory disorder has also been associated with malaria in older people. Also, some studies suggest a decline in the stem cell population reserve, decreased sensitivity of stem cells and precursor cells to the action of cytokines, imbalance in the hematopoietic cytokine production and alterations in the microenvironment impairing homing. Anemia, generally mild, is a common problem in the elderly, especially in men. The incidence of anemia increases with age, principally after 60-years-old. This high prevalence raised the hypothesis that lower levels of hemoglobin could be associated with the normal ageing process.