Microbiome Interactions on Phyllosphere: It Impact on Plant Health
The Plant Microbiome can be described as the sum total of the genomic contribution made by the diverse microbial communities that inhabit the surface and internal tissues of the plant parts. The members of these microbial communities interact among each other and with the plant, and there is increasing evidence to suggest that the microbial community may promote plant growth, facilitate pathogen defense. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms that influence the composition and structure of microbes. Plants have evolved a complex innate immune system comprising Membrane-Localized Receptors (PRRs) and Intracellular Receptors (NLRs) that detect the elicitors and activate immune against pathogens. Some commensals also able to activate PRR-triggered immunity through conserved nature of Microbe Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs). Microbiota stimulates the plant innate immunity which confers resistance against various pathogens (ISR). Apart from these, microbiome suppresses the pathogens via hyper parasitism, secretion of antimicrobial compounds and competition for the resources like nutrients or space which ultimately mitigate pathogen growth. Phyllosphere microbiome in plant resistance in the cuticle mutants bdg (BODYGUARD) or lacs 2.3 (LONG CHAIN FATTY ACID SYNTHASE 2) that are strongly resistant to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea and also reported that phyllosphere microbiome showed distinct populations in Wild Type (WT) plants compared to cuticle mutants. Endophytic bacteria to promote growth and resistance of potato plants towards infection by the necrotroph Pectobacterium atrosepticum, both tested strains (Pseudomonas and Methylobacterium) promoted growth of potato shoot but only the Pseudomonas sp. Increased potato resistance towards soft rot. Understanding the tritropic interactions even better for Development of plant probiotics and for identification of potential agents for combating diseases more eco-friendly.