Prevalence, Etiology and Risk Factors of Endometritis in Zebus Cattle Slaughtered at the Municipal Abattoir of Ngaoundere, Adamawa Region, Cameroon
Objective: Identification of pathogens and risk factors associated with bovine endometritis is helpful in treatment and management decisions. This study was aim to determine the prevalence, etiology and risk factors of endometritis at the Ngaoundere municipal abattoir. Specifically, it was a question of characterizing slaughtered cows, evaluating the prevalence of endometritis, determining the bacterial species involved in endometritis, determining the risk factors for endometritis and the correlated effect of risk factors on the bacterial species responsible for the endometritis.
Methodology: Three hundred and forty-four non-pregnant zebus cows slaughtered at the abattoir of Ngaoundere were evaluated. They were characterized and their uteri were collected, cleaned and the diameters of the cervix and uterine horns were measured using an electronic caliper. The affected uteri were sampled to determine the bacterial species responsible for the endometritis.
Results: Data analysis revealed a prevalence of 12.5% for endometritis (at 95% CI). The bacteria species: Citrobacter braakii, Actinomyces pyogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Bulkhoderia cepacia, Provendencia stuartii and Salmonella spp with the following proportions: 41,86%; 20,93%; 11,62%; 9,30%; 4,65%; 4,65%; 2,32%; 2,32% and 2,32%, respectively, were recorded in the positive cows. The correlation between the risk factors and the bacterial species showed that; there is a direct relation between the season and Citrobacter braakii; the rainy season and Citrobacter braakii was found to have correlation coefficients of 0.86 and 1, respectively. Nevertheless, moderate correlation values were observed between the bacteria species and the BCS (body condition score); emaciated animals and bacteria species; the Red Fulani breed and Escherichia coli with correlation coefficients of 0.42; 0.44 and 0.43, respectively.
Conclusion: Endometritis is present in the bovine population ofAdamawa, and the age of the animals was a principal risk factor, with the age group (5-9 years) being the highest risk group.