Prevalence of Bovine Trypanosomosis, Infection Rate of Trypanosomes in Glossina pallidipes and Apparent Density of the Vectors in Two Districts of Gamo Zone, Southern Ethiopia
A cross sectional study were conducted from November 2020 to April 2021 in two districts of Gamo Zone, southern Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis, infection rate of trypanosome in G. pallidipes, and its vector density. Blood samples were collected from 384 randomly selected cattle and examined using conventional parasitological and hematological techniques. The overall prevalence of bovine trypanosome infection recorded in the study area was 20 (5.2%). Most of the infections were due to Trypanosoma congolense 10 (2.6%) followed by Trypanosoma vivax 8 (2.08%) and 2 (0.52%) by T. brucei. This study showed statistically significant association (p24%) value was found to be infected by trypanosomes. among the total 167 (43.38%) anemic cattle, 149 (38.7%) were aparasitaemic. In an attempt to determine tsetse fly population density, flies were trapped using baited stationary NGU traps. A total of 1943 flies were captured during the study period; out of these, 1210 were Glossina pallidipes and the remaining were biting flies, namely Tabanus and Stomoxy with score of 718 and 15 respectively. The overall apparent density of tsetse and biting fly recorded in the study area was 10.08 fly/trap/day and 6.11 fly/trap/day respectively. The tsetse fly dissection study revealed the overall infection rate of 32 (8.33%) trypanosomes in G. pallidipes. Among the tsetse flies captured 5 (3.5%) were male and 27 (11.2%) were female. The prevalence of trypanosome infection rate was significantly higher (χ2=6.98; P=0.008) in female flies than in male flies. The high infection rate of trypanosome in the tsetse fly and its vector density indicated that, trypanosomiasis remained as the main constraint for livestock production and agriculture in the study area. Therefore, strategic and community based vector and trypanosomiasis control and preventive measures should be taken.