Regenerative Exosomes: A Theragnostic Repository
Exosomes are recently discovered biological nanoparticles (50- 150 nm) that contain signaling cargo pertinent to paracrine cellular signalling within all tissue systems of the human body. Once thought of as cellular debris, exosomes have demonstrateda vast array of applications significant to both the medical and regenerative fields. These extracellular vesicles are secreted from cells as larger multivesicular bodies undergo exocytosis following endosomal processing. Exosome detection in bodily fluids during disease progression has demonstrated potential application as an early-detection disease biomarker. Furthermore, exosomes have been shown to upregulate regenerative effects, such as tissue repair and angiogenesis, in tissue microstructures. Due to the size and bioengineering versatility, exosomes have been the subject of extensive research into targeted drug and gene delivery system development. This minireview aims to characterize both the composition and reported functions of exosomes in addition to potential applications of this technology.