Review on Gross Testicular and Scrotal Abnormalities in Bulls
Fertility of both bulls and cows is vital for good reproductive performance of the herd especially; the fertility or reproductive capacity of bull is a critical factor in determining the reproductive performance of the herd because, a single bull can breed 30 up to 60 cows. Fertility of bulls can be affected by different factors. Gross testicular and scrotal abnormalities are among those factors. The common gross abnormality of testis and scrotum includes orchitis epididymitis, cryptorchidism, testicular hypoplasia, testicular degeneration, scrotal wound and testicular hematoma and their occurrence is reported by different authors from different countries. Orchitis is common in bulls and culling is recommended for brucellar infection. Epididymitis occurs more frequently than orchitis and more frequently in the bull than in other domestic animals. Cryptorchidism is infrequently observed in bulls than in sheep and goats. Testicular hypoplasia is suspected only at puberty or later because of reduced fertility or sterility. Testicular degeneration is often secondary to some other form of testicular disease. Sperm production and/or fertility will be reduced in most cases of testicular diseases. But it may not be reduced in cases of diseases involving only one testicle. Bulls with abnormalities of testes should not be used for breeding purpose, because most of these defects are heritable, especially cryptorchidism and testicular hypoplasia.