Seasonal Variation of Bird Diversity in Dhaneshwor Baikiwa Community Forest, Kavrepalanchowk District, Nepal
Seasonal variation plays an important role in the survival of birds in an ecosystem which is less explored in Nepal. The study was carried out in Dhaneshwor Baikiwa Community Forest of Kavrepalanchowk District, Nepal between January to August 2019 with the objectives to explore the bird diversity and seasonal variation along with the factors affecting bird diversity in the study area. Mackinnon’s Listing Method and Point Count Method were used for bird survey during winter and summer seasons. 108 bird species belonging to 15 orders and 43 families were recorded. Shannon winner diversity index showed the highest bird diversity and evenness during winter season (N=82, H=3.929, E=0.627) than during summer season (N=71, H =3.808, E=0.625). Among 108 species, 79 species were resident, 13 species were winter visitors, 12 species were summer visitors, and four species were passage migrants. Only one globally vulnerable and one nearly threatened species were recorded. Bird diversity was affected by habitat type, distance to nearest settlement, fodder collection, livestock and number of human trails as shown by Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Gaining knowledge on bird diversity in any specific habitat will further helps to understand the ecology of bird species.