Study of the Genetic Variability of Grapevine Cultivar Liatiko (Vitis vinifera L.) using the Ampelographic Description and Molecular Method SSR
Liatiko is considered one of the oldest grapevine cultivars, indigenous to the Cretan vineyard. Due to its very long cultivation in Crete, this variety exhibits great genetic variability as expressed through the different biotypes that have been detected in productive vineyards. The aim of the present study was to investigate six biotypes of grapevine cultivar Liatiko as well as of two grapevine cultivars (Mavroliatis and Diminitis) that are considered as being related to Liatiko, with the use of the ampelographic description and the molecular method SSR. For the ampelographic description, 53 ampelographic characters were used and measured following a list of descriptors developed by the International Organization of Vine and Wine, while for the SSR molecular analysis, a total of seven microsatellites primers were used. From the data analysis, the degree of genetic distances was estimated and the corresponding dendrograms were generated. The results showed that: a) all biotypes of grapevine cultivar Liatiko that were studied shared a very high degree of genetic similarity, suggesting that they constitute clones that originated from an initial variety through the accumulation of mutations, b) there was an almost equal high degree of genetic similarity between the biotypes of grapevine cultivar Liatiko and grapevine cultivar Diminitis, c) grapevine cultivar Mavroliatis is different from all the biotypes of grapevine cultivar Liatiko and grapevine cultivar Diminitis. The results of the current study could constitute the genetic basis for the implementation of clonal selection and the exploitation of the more suitable biotypesclones of grapevine cultivar Liatiko regarding the quality characters of the berries and the wines produced, as well as their cultivation adaptation and suitability (resistance to water stress, diseases, pests etc.) to the new conditions that will be shaped in the next few decades in view of climate change..