TGF-β Signaling in Brain Scarring after Ischemic Stroke
Excessive scarring formation in ischemic core may alter structure and function of the brain. Recent evidence found that soon after ischemic stimuli, neurovascular unit is lost and followed by recruitment of pericytes. However, the clear mechanism of the healing response is still a debate. We review the underlying mechanism of focal brain fibrosis and pericytes recruitment through TGF-β signaling in ischemic core. Moreover, TGF-β regulation to promote proliferation of vascular stromal cells and surrounding glial cells that appear in scar formation is also discussed. In this article, we review the possibility of TGF-β signaling as important regulator in Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in brain scarring, thereby future application of TGF-β inhibitor may benefit stroke patients to improve their recovery after ischemic stroke attack.