The Impact of Environmental Conditions on Cnidarian Venom in Movement and Feeding, Neuronal Coordination of Motile Cilia
The coordination of motile cilia is required for efficient ciliary movement and transport. Biophysical mechanisms can cause short-range ciliary beat synchronization. Long-range coordination across broad or disconnected ciliated fields frequently necessitates nervous system regulation and ciliomotor neuron innervation of ciliated cells. Cilia are well understood in invertebrate ciliated microswimmers, but comparable systems may also work in the vertebrate body. In this paper, we look at how research on aquatic invertebrates has aided our knowledge of cilia neural regulation. The anatomy of ciliomotor systems is discussed, as well as the physiological mechanisms that might affect ciliary activity. We also go through the ciliomotor system of the larval annelid Platynereis, which is the well-studied. Pacemaker neurons cause ciliary stoppage and beating by activating cholinergic and serotonergic ciliomotor neurons in a rhythmic manner. The ciliomotor neurons of Platynereis are a unique element of the larval nervous system. Other ciliated larvae, such as mollusk veligers, are thought to have similar ciliomotor systems. We examine ciliomotor circuits' probable ancestry and conservation, as well as how comparative experimental approaches might help us better understand the evolution and function of ciliary systems.