The Impact of Nut Consumption on Lipid and Lipoprotein Profiles of Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk
Background: Recently, there has been renewed interest for the role of dietary modifications and supplements in dyslipidemia management. Among naturally occurring foods, daily nut intake has been shown to have a beneficial effect on lipid profiles that have been attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have been conducted on patients at high cardiovascular risk. Aims: We aimed to study the impact of daily nut consumption on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in cardiovascular high-risk patients who have not reached their target goals, despite optimal medical treatment and adherence to lifestyle changes. Methods:We conducted a prospective study from February to May 2019 in Habib Bourguiba University Hospital of Medenin to assess the impact of nut consumption on lipid profile of 21 patients at high cardiovascular risk and having a Low Density Lipoprotein- Cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) value greater than 1.81 mmol/L. Results: Our results showed significant total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol lowering-effects of regular nut’s consumption (p<0.05). We further found a significant increase in High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) levels by 25.6% (p=0.000). On multivariate analysis, initial high cholesterol levels, non-familial dyslipidemia, non-smoking and, non-obesity were predictive factors of good response to nuts consumption while advanced age and initial high HDL-cholesterol levels were predictors of poor response. Conclusion: The regular intake of nuts is a promising preventive approach against the development of cardiovascular diseases and may be recommended for patients at high cardiovascular risk in addition to the proposed drug therapies.