The Transmission Pattern of Entamoeba Spp. In and Around Dello Mena District, South East Ethiopia
Amoebiasis is primarily a disease of humans and animals and its transmission is mainly faecal-oral route and waterborne. Amoebiasis is still a big challenge for humans, animals and is a major cause of diarrhea in least-developed tropical and subtropical regions including Ethiopia and its prevalence data in animal and environmental occurrence is rare. Recent information on these diseases is essential to design suitable control interventions in a specific setting. This study was conducted to assess the magnitude of Entamoeba species infestation in humans, dogs and its occurrence in water. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among the population of DelloMana District. Pet owners were selected randomly and sociodemographic data were collected using a standard questionnaire. Microscopic examinations of stool samples were done. Parasites were identified using morphometric techniques using the known pathogenic spp. positive control slides. A total of 383 faecal samples of humans, 383 their dogs, and 59 water samples were studied from December 2019 to July 2020. Out of 383 humans, 70 (18.2%), 383 dogs 63 (16.4%) and 59 water samples 16 (27.11%) were contaminated with Entamoeba spp. The major risk factors for the spread and transmissions of parasites were contaminated drinking water (prevalence: 78.3%, p-value ≥ 0 and OR (95% CI), 67.050 (31.303, 143.618), family size (prevalence: 50%, p-value ≥0 and OR (95% CI), 6.513 (2.787, 15.220), open air defecation (prevalence: 26.4% p value ≥0 and OR (95% CI), 0.367 (0.195, 0.689) and improper hand washing (prevalence 76.5% pvalue=0.002 and OR (95% CI): 2.5 (1.36-4.4). Of the 59 water samples from different sites of Dellomena, Haranabuluk and Medawolebu 16 (27.11%), samples were positive for Entamoebiasis based on direct microscopical examination. This study revealed that human reservoirs are a major risk factor for the spread and transmission of Amoebiasis in the dog (prevalence: 18.2%, p-value: ≥ 0.000 and OR (95%CI), 620.000 (165.709, 2319.733). This study revealed that the overall prevalence of amoebiasiswas high among humans and dogs. The high prevalence of the disease might be because of open air defecation, unhygienic health practices, keeping domestic animals inside the houses or using local water bodies as a drinking source.