An electronic circuit consists of individual electronic elements, like resistors, transistors, capacitor, inductors and diodes, connected by semiconductive wires or traces through that electrical phenomenon will flow. The mix of elements and wires permits varied straightforward and sophisticated operations to be performed: signals are often amplified, computations are often performed, and knowledge is often affected from one place to a different. Circuits are often made of distinct elements connected by individual items of wire, however nowadays it's rather more common to form interconnections by photolithographic techniques on a laminated substrate (a computer circuit board or PCB) and solder the elements to those interconnections to form a finished circuit. In associate degree computer circuit or IC, the elements and interconnections square measure fashioned on an equivalent substrate, usually a semiconductor like semiconductor or (less commonly) Ga chemical compound. Breadboards, perfboards or stripboards square measure common for testing new styles. They permit the designer to form fast changes to the circuit throughout development. An electronic circuit will sometimes be classified as associate degree analog circuit, a digital circuit or a mixed-signal circuit (a combination of analog circuits and digital circuits). Analog electronic circuits square measure those within which current or voltage could vary unendingly with time to correspond to the knowledge being pictured. Analog electronic equipment is built from 2 elementary building blocks: series and parallel circuits. During electric circuit, an equivalent current passes through a series of elements. In digital electronic circuits, electrical signals strive against distinct values, to represent logical and numeric values. These values represent the knowledge that's being processed. Mixed-signal or hybrid circuits contain components of each analog and digital circuits. Examples embody comparators, timers, phase-locked loops, analog-to-digital converters, and digital-to-analog converters.