Nanotechnology is defined as the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applicationsŁ. Nanoscale materials are the objects or products of Nanotechnology. Nanoscale materials are a broadly defined set of substances that have at least one critical dimension less than 100 nanometers and possess unique optical, magnetic, or electrical properties. Using nanotechnology, materials can effectively be made to be stronger, lighter, more durable, more reactive, more sieve-like, or better electrical conductors, among many other traits. The earliest application of nanoscale materials occurred in systems where nanoscale powders could be used in their free form, without consolidation or blending. There already exist over 800 everyday commercial products that rely on nanoscale materials and processes. Nanoscale materials is already in use in many computing, communications, and other electronics applications to provide faster, smaller, and more portable systems that can manage and store larger and larger amounts of information. The Nanoscale materials have also shown enormous applications in sustainable energy, environmental renewable applications, Nanobiosystems, Medical and healthcare, and future transportation applications. With all these potential applications, nanoscale materials show potential toxicity. with their unique and diverse physicochemical properties, nanoscale materials suggest that toxicological properties may differ from materials of similar composition but different size.