Corneal transplantation, also known as corneal grafting, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced by donated corneal tissue (the graft) in its entirety (penetrating keratoplasty) or in part (lamellar keratoplasty). The graft is taken from a recently deceased individual with no known diseases or other factors that may affect the viability of the donated tissue or the health of the recipient.A corneal transplant is recommended for people who have Vision problems caused by thinning of the cornea, usually due to keratoconus (when less invasive treatments are not an option), Scarring of the cornea from severe infections or injuries.A cornea transplant may be necessary if eyeglasses or contact lenses can't restore your functional vision or if painful swelling can't be relieved by medications or special contact lenses.A cornea transplant can be carried out under general anesthetic (where you are unconscious) or local anaesthetic (where the area is numbed).Topical antibiotics are used for several weeks postoperatively and topical corticosteroids for several months. To protect the eye from inadvertent trauma after transplantation, the patient wears shields, glasses, or sunglasses. If transplantation involves the full thickness of the cornea (as in penetrating keratoplasty, or PKP), achievement of full visual potential may take up to 18 mo because of changing refraction with wound healing and after suture removal.Corneal transplantation is suggested in a number of corneal disorders including advanced keratoconus, corneal swelling, scars, and dystrophies. About 46,000 corneal transplantations are performed in the United States every year.