Commentary, J Infect Dis Immune Ther Vol: 5 Issue: 6
A Brief Note on Cell Biology and its Significance
Ahupathi Ballabh Narayana*
Department of Pulmonology, Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal
*Corresponding Author : Ahupathi Ballabh Narayana
Department of Pulmonology, Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal, E-mail: [email protected]
Received: November 01, 2021; Accepted: November 15, 2021; Published: November 22, 2021
Citation: Narayana AB (2021) A Brief Note on Cell Biology and its Significance. J Infect Dis Immune Ther 5: 6.
Cell biology covers both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and includes a number of subtopics such as cell metabolism, cell communication, cell cycle, biochemistry, and cell composition. Cells are studied utilizing a variety of microscopy techniques, cell culture, and cell fractionation. These have enabled for, and are currently being utilized for, discoveries and study into how cells work, ultimately leading to a better understanding of bigger creatures. Understanding the components of cells and how they operate is essential for all biological sciences, as well as biomedical research in areas like cancer and other diseases. Genetics, molecular genetics, molecular biology, medical microbiology, immunology, and cytochemistry are all linked to cell biology study.
Cell biology study examines various methods for cultivating and manipulating cells outside of a living organism in order to advance human anatomy and physiology research and to develop drugs. The methods for studying cells have progressed. Scientists now have a greater grasp of the structure and function of cells because to advances in microscopy, methods, and technology.
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are the two types of cells that exist. The absence of a cell nucleus or other membrane bound organelle distinguishes prokaryotic cells from eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are the smallest form of life, being significantly smaller than eukaryotic cells. Bacteria and Archaea are examples of prokaryotic cells, which lack an enclosed cell nucleus. Their DNA is enclosed within a membrane bound nucleus, and their diameter ranges from 10 to 100 m. Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, and Protista are the four eukaryotic kingdoms.
Cell metabolism, which involves several pathways, is required for the cell's synthesis of energy and, as a result, its survival. Once glucose is available for cellular respiration, glycolysis takes place in the cell's cytoplasm, producing pyruvate. Pyruvate is decarboxylated by a multi-enzyme complex to yield acetyl coA, which is readily utilised in the TCA cycle to generate NADH and FADH2. These products are part of the electron transport chain, which leads to the formation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. During oxidative phosphorylation, this gradient can then drive the creation of ATP and H2O. In plant cells, metabolism includes photosynthesis, which is the polar opposite of respiration in that it results in the production of glucose molecules.
Cell signalling, also known as cell communication, is necessary for cell control and for cells to process and respond to information from the environment. Direct cell contact, as well as endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine signalling, are all possibilities for signalling. When a cell's receptor connects to a molecule linked to another cell's membrane, this is known as direct cell-cell interaction. Endocrine signalling is carried out by substances that are secreted into the bloodstream. To communicate, paracrine signalling relies on chemicals diffusing between two cells. A cell sends a signal to another cell by secreting a chemical that attaches to a receptor on the cell's surface.