HIV and AIDS Research Journal

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Commentary, Hiv Aids Res J Vol: 5 Issue: 1

A Short Review on HIV/AIDS Infection

Deogratius Ssemwanga*

Medical Research Council (MRC)/Uganda, Virus Research Institute (UVRI) and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) Uganda Research Unit, Entebbe, Uganda

*Corresponding Author:
Deogratius Ssemwanga
Medical Research Council (MRC)/Uganda, Virus Research Institute (UVRI) and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) Uganda Research Unit, Entebbe, Uganda

Received date: 06 December, 2021, Manuscript No. HARJ-22-56927;

Editor assigned date: 08 December, 2021, PreQC No. HARJ-22-56927(PQ);

Reviewed date: 22 December, 2021, QC No HARJ-22-56927;

Revised date: 27 December, 2021, Manuscript No. HARJ-22-56927(R);

Published date: 06 January, 2022, DOI: 10.4172/HARJ.1000005

Citation: Ssemwanga D (2022) A Short Review on HIV/AIDS Infection. HIV AIDS Res J 5:1..

Keywords: HIV


HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is an epidemic that assaults the body’s immune system. If HIV isn't treated, it could result in AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome). Learning the fundamentals approximately HIV can maintain you healthful and save you HIV transmission. To emerge as inflamed with HIV, inflamed blood, semen or vaginal secretions have to input your body. This can appear in numerous ways: By having intercourse. You can also additionally emerge as inflamed when you have vaginal, anal or oral intercourse with an inflamed associate whose blood, semen or vaginal secretions input your body.

What is HIV?

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a plague that assaults the body’s immune system. If HIV isn't treated, it is able to cause AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome).There is presently no powerful cure. Once human beings get HIV, they have got it for life. But with right clinical care, HIV may be controlled. People with HIV who get powerful HIV remedy can stay long, healthful lives and defend their partners. HIV contamination in human beings got here from a sort of chimpanzee in Central Africa. The chimpanzee model of the virus (known as simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV) became probable surpassed to human beings while human beings hunted those chimpanzees for meat and got here in touch with their inflamed blood. Studies display that HIV may also have jumped from chimpanzees to human beings as a ways again because the past due 1800s.Over decades, HIV slowly unfolds throughout Africa and later into different elements of the world. We recognize that the virus has existed with inside the United States on account that at the least the mid to past due 1970s. Some humans have flu-like signs and symptoms inside 2 to four weeks after infection (known as acute HIV infection). These signs and symptoms might also additionally remain for some days or numerous weeks. Possible signs and symptoms include: Fever, Chills, Rash, Night sweats, Muscle aches, Sore throat, Fatigue, Swollen lymph nodes, and Mouth ulcers. But a few humans might not sense ill throughout acute HIV infection. These signs and symptoms don’t imply you've got HIV. Other ailments can purpose those identical signs and symptoms.

To emerge as inflamed with HIV, inflamed blood, semen or vaginal secretions should input your frame. This can appear in numerous ways: By having intercourse. You might also additionally emerge as inflamed when you have vaginal, anal or oral intercourse with an inflamed companion whose blood, semen or vaginal secretions input your frame. The virus can input your frame thru mouth sores or small tears that every now and then broaden with inside the rectum or vagina for the duration of sexual activity. By sharing needles. Sharing infected IV drug paraphernalia (needles and syringes) places you at excessive danger of HIV and different infectious diseases, inclusive of hepatitis. From blood transfusions. In a few cases, the virus can be transmitted thru blood transfusions. American hospitals and blood banks now display the blood deliver for HIV antibodies, so this danger could be very small. During being pregnant or shipping or thru breast-feeding. Infected moms can by skip the virus directly to their babies. Mothers who're HIV-wonderful and get remedy for the contamination for the duration of being pregnant can extensively decrease the danger to their babies [1-5].

Risk factor, anyone of any age, race, intercourse or sexual orientation may be inflamed with HIV/AIDS. However, you are at finest threat of HIV/AIDS if you: Have unprotected intercourse. Use a brand new latex or polyurethane condom on every occasion you've got intercourse. Anal intercourse is greater volatile than is vaginal intercourse. Your threat of HIV will increase when you have more than one sexual partners. Have an STI. Many STIs produce open sores to your genitals. These sores act as doors for HIV to go into your body. Use IV pills. People who use IV pills frequently proportion needles and syringes. This exposes them to droplets of different people's blood.

Stages of HIV

Acute HIV infection, people have a huge quantity of HIV of their blood. They are very contagious. Some human beings have flu-like signs and symptoms. This is the body’s herbal reaction to infection. But a few human beings might not sense ill proper away or at all. If you've got got flu-like signs and symptoms and assume you can had been uncovered to HIV, are searching for hospital therapy and ask for a check to diagnose acute infection. Only antigen/antibody checks or nucleic acid checks (NATs) can diagnose acute infection.

Chronic HIV infection,this degree is likewise known as asymptomatic HIV contamination or medical latency. HIV remains lively however reproduce at very low stages. People might not have any signs and symptoms or get unwell at some point of this phase. Without taking HIV medication, this era might also additionally closing a decade or longer, however a few might also additionally development faster. People can transmit HIV on this phase. At the cease of this phase, the quantity of HIV with inside the blood (known as viral load) is going up and the CD4 mobileular rely is going down. The individual might also additionally have signs and symptoms because the virus stages growth with inside the body, and the individual actions into Stage 3. People who take HIV medication as prescribed might also additionally by no means pass into Stage 3 [5-10].

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome the maximum intense segment of HIV infection. People with AIDS have such badly broken immune structures that they get increasingly intense illnesses, known as opportunistic infections. People get hold of an AIDS analysis whilst their CD4 mobileular rely drops underneath 2 hundred cells or in the event that they broaden sure opportunistic infections. People with AIDS could have an excessive viral load and be very infectious. Without treatment, humans with AIDS generally live to tell the tale approximately 3 years.

Prevention and Treatment

There's no vaccine to save you HIV contamination and no treatment for AIDS. But you may guard yourself and others from contamination. To assist save you the unfold of HIV: Use remedy as prevention (TasP). If you are dwelling with HIV, taking HIV medicinal drug can preserve your accomplice from turning into inflamed with the virus. If you make certain your viral load remains undetectable- a blood check does not display any virus- you might not transmit the virus to all and sundry else. Using TasP manner taking your medicinal drug precisely as prescribed and getting normal checkups. Use post-publicity prophylaxis in case you've been uncovered to HIV. If you believe you studied you have been uncovered thru intercourse, needles or with inside the workplace, touch your physician or visit the emergency department. Taking PEP as quickly as feasible with inside the first seventy two hours can significantly lessen your hazard of turning into inflamed with HIV. You will want to take medicinal drug for 28 days. Use a brand new condom on every occasion you've got got intercourse. Use a brand new condom on every occasion you've got got anal or vaginal intercourse. Women can use a lady condom. If the use of a lubricant, make certain it is water-primarily based totally. Oil-primarily based totally lubricants can weaken condoms and motive them to break. During oral intercourse use a nonlubricated, reduce- open condom or a dental dam - a bit of medical-grade latex. Consider Pre Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). The mixture tablets emtricitabine plus tenofovir (Truvada) and emtricitabine plus tenofovir alafenamide (Descovy) can lessen the hazard of sexually transmitted HIV contamination in human beings at very excessive hazard. PrEP can lessen your hazard of having HIV from intercourse through greater than 90% and from injection drug use through greater than 70%, in keeping with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Descovy hasn't been studied in human beings who've receptive vaginal intercourse. Your physician will prescribe those tablets for HIV prevention simplest in case you do not have already have HIV contamination. You will want an HIV check earlier than you begin taking PrEP after which each 3 months so long as you take it. Your physician will even check your kidney feature earlier than prescribing Truvada and retain to check it each six months. You want to take the medication each day. They do not save you different STIs, so you will nonetheless want to exercise secure intercourse. If you've got hepatitis B, you need to be evaluated through an infectious sickness or liver expert earlier than starting therapy. Tell your sexual companions when you have HIV. It's crucial to inform all of your present day and beyond sexual companions that you are HIV-positive. They'll want to be tested. Use a smooth needle. If you operate a needle to inject tablets, make certain it is sterile and do not proportion it. Take gain of needle-change packages to your community. Consider looking for assist to your drug use. If you are pregnant, get hospital treatment proper away. If you are HIV-positive, you can by skip the contamination for your baby. But in case you obtain remedy all through pregnancy, you may considerably reduce your baby's hazard. Consider male circumcision. There's proof that male circumcision can assist lessen the hazard of having HIV contamination [10-13].


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