Journal of Infectious Diseases & Immune Therapies

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Editorial, J Infect Dis Immune Ther Vol: 6 Issue: 1

Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment

Guilherme Amaral*

Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Disease (REIPI), Virgen del Roc­o University Hospital, Sevilla, Spain

*Corresponding Author:

Guilherme Amaral
Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Disease (REIPI), Virgen del Roc­o University Hospital, Sevilla, Spain
E-mail:[email protected]

Received date:  04 January, 2022; Manuscript No. JIDITH-22-57254;
Editor assigned date: 06 January, 2022; PreQC No. JIDITH-22-57254(PQ);
Reviewed date: 17 January, 2022; QC No JIDITH-22-57254;
Revised date: 27 January, 2022; Manuscript No. JIDITH-22-57254(R);
Published date: 03 February, 2022; DOI: 10.4172/jidith.1000141.
Citation: Guilherme (2022) Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment. J Infect Dis Immune Ther 6:1.

Abstract

Antibiotic tolerance emerged in many bacterial species long before humans began mass-producing antibiotics to prevent and treat infectious illnesses. Isolated caves, permafrost cores, and other settings and specimens that have been maintained from anthropogenic bacterial contamination can provide insight into pre-antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The never-ending fight for resources among microbes, including the natural synthesis of secondary metabolites that are identical to many of the antibiotics used now as medications, is believed to be a major driver of the ancient and currently ongoing evolution of resistance mechanisms [1]. Antibiotics' relatively recent introduction as clinical agents drastically altered the preconditions for resistance evolution and spread by imposing unprecedented selection pressures, particularly on members of the micro biota of humans and domestic animals, but also in antibiotic-polluted environments. The mobilization and horizontal transfer of a wide range of Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARGs) too many bacterial species, particularly those that cause disease, has been aided by this selection pressure [2]. The end result of such accumulated evolutionary events is a progressive increase in the difficulty of preventing and treating bacterial illnesses. Because bacteria and genes frequently traverse species and environmental boundaries, it's crucial to understand and acknowledge the links between the human, animal, and environmental micro biota in order to address this global health issue. The function of the environment in the evolution of resistance and as a pathway for transmission of resistant bacteria that already circulate in humans is described in this Review. We discuss how environmental studies of resistance could provide a representation of the regional clinical resistance state, thereby augmenting traditional surveillance. We also give a critical appraisal of the methodologies utilized to explore antibiotic resistance in the environment, especially in terms of determining selection forces [3]. Finally, we suggest several principles that could guide risk-reduction measures, with a focus on issues in low- and middle-income countries and antibiotic-related emissions.

Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance

Introduction

Antibiotic tolerance emerged in many bacterial species long before humans began mass-producing antibiotics to prevent and treat infectious illnesses. Isolated caves, permafrost cores, and other settings and specimens that have been maintained from anthropogenic bacterial contamination can provide insight into pre-antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The never-ending fight for resources among microbes, including the natural synthesis of secondary metabolites that are identical to many of the antibiotics used now as medications, is believed to be a major driver of the ancient and currently ongoing evolution of resistance mechanisms [1].
Antibiotics' relatively recent introduction as clinical agents drastically altered the preconditions for resistance evolution and spread by imposing unprecedented selection pressures, particularly on members of the micro biota of humans and domestic animals, but also in antibiotic-polluted environments. The mobilization and horizontal transfer of a wide range of Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARGs) too many bacterial species, particularly those that cause disease, has been aided by this selection pressure [2]. The end result of such accumulated evolutionary events is a progressive increase in the difficulty of preventing and treating bacterial illnesses.
Because bacteria and genes frequently traverse species and environmental boundaries, it's crucial to understand and acknowledge the links between the human, animal, and environmental micro biota in order to address this global health issue. The function of the environment in the evolution of resistance and as a pathway for transmission of resistant bacteria that already circulate in humans is described in this Review. We discuss how environmental studies of resistance could provide a representation of the regional clinical resistance state, thereby augmenting traditional surveillance. We also give a critical appraisal of the methodologies utilized to explore antibiotic resistance in the environment, especially in terms of determining selection forces [3]. Finally, we suggest several principles that could guide risk-reduction measures, with a focus on issues in low- and middle-income countries and antibiotic-related emissions.

Resistance Evolution in the Environment

Antibiotic resistance can result from both changes in a bacterium's pre-existing genome and the import of foreign DNA. In the human or animal treated with the antibiotic, mutations develop often and become fixed. Pathogens are rarely subjected to such intense selection pressure elsewhere. In other species, the process is likewise independent of the genetic reservoir. As a result, for most diseases, external factors are less likely to play a significant role in mutation-based resistance evolution [4]. Water, soil, and other habitats with extremely varying ecological niches provide an unrivalled gene pool with a variety that far exceeds that of the human and domestic animal micro biota in terms of uptake of novel resistance factors.
Indeed, the most striking feature of the ambient micro biome is its enormous diversity, which provides countless genes that pathogens could possibly acquire and employ to counteract antibiotic effects. So far, all approved antibiotic classes have been met by resistance in at least some of the pathogens they target, whether natural, semi-synthetic, or synthetic chemicals [5]. This means that, unless we change our minds about how antibiotics are constructed, external surroundings already harbor resistance elements for all antibiotics that will ever be discovered.
Most ARGs are thought to have developed over ages from genes with other roles. The more recent evolutionary events that have led to their widespread prevalence in infections are primarily the result of gene transfers from ancestral species that have changed the general activity of the genes. A pathogen's acquired resistance is usually the result of a gradual evolution from a chromosomal, immobile ARG [6]. The ability of an ARG to move throughout the genome is often the initial stage, which is achieved, for example, by connection with insertion sequences or the development of gene cassettes and inclusion into integrin's.
The gene is then transferred to an autonomously moving element, such as a plasmid or an integrative conjugative element, in the second stage. Some environments are probably more likely than others to provide the various genetic elements involved in ARG mobilization and transfer, either because of the presence of fiscal bacteria known to frequently carry such elements or possibly because the conditions (including reoccurring stress) favor frequent gene exchanges [7]. The horizontal transmission of a mobilized resistance gene to a pathogen, either directly or via one or more intermediary bacterial hosts, is the third stage.
The physical transfer of the ARG-carrying bacterium to the human or domestic animal micro biota, referred to as "ecological connection," is the fourth phase, which can occur at any point during the process. Most stages are probably speeding up due to high metabolic activity and significant cell-to-cell contact (as in biofilms). Antibiotics can help with all of these phases, including mobilization via insertion sequences or integrin's, increases in donor cell number and hence transfer possibilities, and the rate of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT). Importantly, most, if not all, of these stages occur in the absence of antibiotics, though at varying rates [8].
As a result, it's critical to know where the bottlenecks are in pathogen resistance evolution. The selection of uncommon genotypes with acquired resistance that occur from mobilization and/or HGT, genotypes that would otherwise vanish, is likely to represent a significant bottleneck. Compensatory mutations in the genome of the ARG-carrying bacterium may arise at any stage, minimizing possible fitness costs by reducing niche overlap or enhancing competitive ability [9]. Only when all of the circumstances in time and place align do new ARGs emerge in the clinic.
In theory, the external environment could play a role in all, some, or none of the evolutionary phases. Twenty-one of the 22 ARGs with strong evidence for recent origin down to species level come from species that are at least occasionally linked to illnesses in humans and/or domestic animals. The concept that human and/or domestic animals constitute the most critical habitats for resistance evolution under selection pressure from antibiotics is consistent with this strong over-representation. However, the vast majority of ARGs have an unknown recent origin, presumably because they derive from environmental species that have yet to be sequenced. This alternate theory suggests that the external world plays a considerably larger impact [10].
While the introduction of additional ARGs to pathogens is concerning, changes in the genetic background around ARGs that impact resistance levels, co-selection possibilities, pathogenicity, or transmission potential can also exacerbate the resistance problem. Evolutionary events leading to the establishment of pathogens with new, effective resistance genotypes via any of these methods have quite different effects than transmission events of widely circulating genotypes. Even a single occurrence can result in the irreversible global spread of a new genotype, making treatment more difficult. Critical evolutionary events, in comparison to transmission, are infrequent and, to some part, unique in nature, making them more difficult to forecast. Despite this, the advantages of being able to delay or prevent their emergence can be significant.

References

  1. Nichols D, Cahoon N, Trakhtenberg EM, Pham L, Mehta A, et al. (2010) Use of Ichip for high-throughput in situ cultivation of "uncultivable" microbial species. Appl Environ Microbiol 76: 2445-2450. [Crossref] [Google Scholar] [Indexed]
  2. Ashton PM, Nair S, Dallman T, Rubino S, Rabsch W, et al. (2015) MinION nanopore sequencing identifies the position and structure of a bacterial antibiotic resistance island. Nat Biotechnol 33: 296-300. [Crossref] [Google Scholar] [Indexed]
  3. Sjolund M, Bonnedahl J, Hernandez J, Bengtsson S, Cederbrant G, et al. (2008) Dissemination of multidrug-resistant bacteria into the Arctic. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 70-72. [Crossref] [Google Scholar] [Indexed]
  4. Finley RL, Collignon P, Larsson DGJ, McEwen SA, Li XZ, et al. (2013) The scourge of antibiotic resistance: The important role of the environment. Clin Infect Dis 57: 704-710. [Crossref] [Google Scholar] [Indexed]
  5. Nesme J, Simonet P (2015) The soil resistome: A critical review on antibiotic resistance origins, ecology and dissemination potential in telluric bacteria. Environ Microbiol 17: 913-930. [Crossref] [Google Scholar] [Indexed]
  6. Knapp CW, Dolfing J, Ehlert PAI, Graham DW (2010) Evidence of increasing antibiotic resistance gene abundances in archived soils since 1940. Environ Sci Technol 44: 580-587. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Zhu YG, Johnson TA, Su JQ, Qiao M, Guo GX, et al. (2013) Diverse and abundant antibiotic resistance genes in Chinese swine farms. Proc Natl Acad Sci 110: 343-3440. [Crossref] [Google Scholar] [Indexed]
  8. McCann CM, Christgen B, Roberts JA, Su JQ, Arnolde KE, et al. (2019) Understanding drivers of antibiotic resistance genes in High Arctic soil ecosystems. Environ Int 125: 497-504. [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Lundstrom SV, Ostman M, Palme JB, Rutgersson C, Thoudal M, et al. (2016) Minimal selective concentrations of tetracycline in complex aquatic bacterial biofilms. Sci Total Environ 553: 587-595. [Crossref] [Google Scholar] [Indexed]
  10. Medema G, Heijnen L, Elsinga G, Italiaander R, Brouwer A (2020) Presence of SARS-coronavirus-2 RNA in sewage and correlation with reported COVID-19 prevalence in the early stage of the epidemic in the Netherlands. Environ Sci Technol Lett 7: 511-516. [Crossref] [Google Scholar] [Indexed]
international publisher, scitechnol, subscription journals, subscription, international, publisher, science

Track Your Manuscript

Recommended Conferences