Journal of Plant Physiology & PathologyISSN: 2329-955X

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Opinion Article, J Plant Physiol Patho Vol: 11 Issue: 1

Biological and Biotic Stress Resistance Systems in Plants

Jothi Muneer*

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, India

*Corresponding Author: Jothi Muneer
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, India

Received date: 28 December, 2023, Manuscript No. JPPP-23-95455;

Editor assigned date: 03 January, 2023, Pre QC No. JPPP-23-95455(PQ);

Reviewed date: 17 January, 2023, QC No. JPPP-23-95455;

Revised date: 24 January, 2023, Manuscript No, JPPP-23-95455(R);

Published date: 31 January, 2023, DOI: 10.4172/2329-955X.1000287

Citation: Muneer J (2023) Biological and Biotic Stress Resistance Systes in plants. J Plant Physiol Pathol 11:1 .


Plants, being sessile organisms, are constantly exposed to various stresses in their environment, including biotic and abiotic stresses. Biotic stresses refer to the harmful effects caused by living organisms such as pathogens (e.g., bacteria, viruses, fungi, and insects) and herbivores, while abiotic stresses result from non-living factors such as extreme temperatures, drought, salinity, and nutrient deficiencies. In order to survive and reproduce in the face of these stresses, plants have evolved an array of defense responses that allow them to adapt and thrive in challenging conditions. Plant Defense Responses against Biotic Stresses. Plants have developed several defense mechanisms to protect themselves against biotic stresses. These responses can be categorized into two main types they are constitutive and induced defenses.

Constitutive defenses are pre-existing defenses that are present in plants even in the absence of stress. These defenses act as a first line of defense to deter pathogens and herbivores from invading the plant. Examples of constitutive defenses include physical barriers like the waxy cuticle, cell walls, and thorns, as well as chemical defenses like secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoids, which are toxic or unpalatable to herbivores.

Induced defenses, on the other hand, are triggered in response to stress. When plants detect the presence of biotic stresses, they activate specific signaling pathways that lead to the production of defenser elated proteins and secondary metabolites. These responses are often referred to as "inducible defenses" and are a part of the plant's immune system

One well-known example of an induced defense response in plants is the Hypersensitive Response (HR), which is triggered by the recognition of pathogens. When a plant detects the presence of a pathogen, it activates a complex signaling cascade that results in a rapid and localized cell death at the site of infection. This cell death prevents the pathogen from spreading further and restricts its growth.

Another important defense response against biotic stresses is the production of antimicrobial compounds. Plants produce a wide range of antimicrobial compounds, such as phytoalexins, which are toxic to pathogens and inhibit their growth. Plants also produce enzymes, such as chitinases and glucanases, which break down the cell walls of pathogens, rendering them ineffective.

In addition to these chemical defenses, plants also employ physical defenses against biotic stresses. For example, some plants produce trichomes, which are hair-like structures on the surface of leaves and stems that can physically deter herbivores from feeding. Other plants produce thorns or spines that can deter herbivores from grazing.

Plant Defense Responses against Abiotic Stresses, Plants also have developed various defense responses to cope with abiotic stresses. These responses help plants tolerate and survive adverse environmental conditions.

One of the most common defense responses against abiotic stresses is the regulation of stomatal closure. Stomata are small openings on the surface of leaves that regulate the exchange of gases, water vapor, and nutrients between the plant and its environment. When plants are subjected to abiotic stresses such as drought, high temperatures, or high salinity, they can close their stomata to reduce water loss and prevent damage from excessive transpiration.

Plants also produce osmoprotectants, which are small organic molecules that help plants tolerate osmotic stresses caused by high salinity, drought, or extreme temperatures. Osmoprotectants, such as proline, betaine, and sugars, can accumulate in plant cells and act as osmoregulators, maintaining cellular integrity and function under stress conditions. Another defense response against abiotic stresses is the production of antioxidant enzymes.

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