Editorial, J Plant Physiol Pathol Vol: 9 Issue: 6
Climate change: Role of Agro-technology for sustainable crop yield
USDA-ARS, Crop Production and Pest Control Research Unit
- *Corresponding Author:
- Raksha Singh
USDA-ARS, Crop Production and Pest Control Research Unit, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: June 04, 2019; Accepted Date: June 21, 2021; Published Date: June 28, 2021
Citation: Singh R (2021) Climate Change: Role of Agro-Technology for Sustainable Crop Yield. J Plant Physiol Pathol 9:6. 251.
Copyright: © All articles published in Journal of Plant Physiology & Pathology are the property of SciTechnol, and is protected by copyright laws. “Copyright © 2021, SciTechnol, All Rights Reserved.
Keywords: crop yield
In several countries, agriculture is the main livelihood for a majority of the population and accounts for a higher percentage of GDP and employment. Several crops depend on natural rainfall for production. Climate change has a substantial impact on these rain-fed crops. Climate change on a global scale implies an increase in the average temperature in the crop ecosystem. According to United Nations, this phenomenon of global warming has a tremendous impact on agricultural productivity and crop sustainability. Crops depend on their immediate geo-climatic conditions and their growth, development, disease resistance and yield are dependent on the surrounding temperature, soil fertility, and water availability. The climate change mainly in terms of variations in temperature pattern, altered precipitation pattern, and the extent of sunlight availability result in the alteration of agro-ecosystem and surrounding climatic conditions of the crops. If there are drastic changes in the ecosystem then the crops become susceptible to climate change. The cumulative impact of climate change on the arable land, soil fertility, livestock, and hydrological parameters cannot be ruled out.
Ensuring good levels of soil fertility and food security for future generations is our responsibility and therefore the working towards crop sustainability has to begin now so the results start showing over a few years. In this context, computer-based modeling, simulation, and prediction of future crop production under the projected altered conditions of the crop ecosystem become even more important for ascertain the potential impact of climate change on crop production and to devise pre-emptive mitigation strategies for sustainable yield, ensuring food security for the future generations and sustainable profitability of the farmers. This will also lead to the identification of the crops that are susceptible and the crops that are resistant and facilitates selection of the crop varieties that are resistant to climate change. Additionally, the areas that have the potential to maximize crop production can also be identified and worked upon much in advance [1,2].
Global climate change has lead to reduced agricultural productivity particularly in the South East Asian region particularly due to higher levels of water stress and raised temperature and climate variability. This is causing a risk for food security. The major food crops such as rice production were projected to decrease by 10% over 10 to 15 years due to an increase in the averages minimal temperature.
To address the Global climate change impact effectively, it becomes necessary to develop and optimize adaptation strategies that are specific to the particular type of crop and its geography. This involves a multifactorial approach and large-scale public planning and investment. According to the United Nations environment program and Denmark Technical University partnership report, it is estimated that among 36 developing countries the adaptation targets and the total cost associated range from USD 142 to 300 billion per year by 2030. This financial support is allocated to various climate change mitigation as well as adaptation activities. Out of them, crop irrigation will be a major infrastructure goal. Crop irrigation provides adequate water supply and stabilizes crop productivity is often regarded as a major strategy to adapt to climate change [3,4].
Intergovernmental panel on climate change has observed that the average Global temperature and the average sea level have consistently increased for the past hundred years and more particularly in the past 25 years. These phenomena of El Nino and LA Nina effects could be observed across different countries that are dependent on agriculture. Due to these changes in climate people are witnessing more serious forms of natural disasters such as typhoons, floods, cyclones, droughts, and landslides. This natural disaster not only affects crop production but also causes damage to the agricultural infrastructure and most importantly the livelihood of the people. Therefore, to develop the agriculture sector for its sustainability it has become important to assess the impact of climate change on agricultural production and device suitable response solutions and more importantly, hydrotechnology- based strategies as well as their implementation [5,6].
The increase in temperature has multiple effects. Higher temperatures cause reduced water supply and areas which do not have water supply consistently turn out to be non-arable leading up to a two-fold decrease in the cultivation area. An increase in the temperature also causes Arctic and Antarctic glaciers to melt down and this results in the rise of mean sea level and causes flooding of the coastal areas and mangroves. The salinity of the soil also increases due to the intrusion of seawater. Due to alteration in the climatic condition, the natural biodiversity of the ecosystem gets disturbed. Due to irregular pattern of rainfall, the natural crop planning and plantation season also gets severely affected. This in turn results in the non-availability of certain foods. The extent of Crop loss can range anywhere from 20% to 60% depending on the type of crop. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, India is suffering in loss of almost 125 million tons of grain due to climate change. Reduced crop production leads to higher prices of food products concomitant with increased demand for consumption and this indirectly elevates hunger, poverty, and undernourishment among populations. Vietnam is identified by United Nations Development organization as one of the agricultural-dependent countries that are most vulnerable and most affected by climate change. A rise in mean sea level results in the intrusion of saltwater into the mainland thus increasing the salinity. According to the Asian Development Bank with a temperature rise of 1 degree Celsius, rice which is a major cereal and the staple crop, yields decreases by almost 10%. For every single degree of increase in the average global temperature, the Maize yield is projected to decline by an average of 7. 4 %. Therefore the development of droughttolerant varieties can help grow maize under increase abiotic water stress conditions. Within the context of increasing demand for food, this impact on production threatens food security in the region. Sugarcane is one of the major crops. Climate change and rising surface temperatures are contributing to the variation in sugarcane yield which is further confounded by differences in the management and technological advancements, soil type, crop variety as well as climatic conditions. Therefore, it is important to quantify the sensitivity of crops such as sugarcane towards climate change to be able to predict the future yield pattern as well as develop management strategies for resilient agriculture and increased potential of production.
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