VEGETOS: An International Journal of Plant ResearchOnline ISSN: 2229-4473
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Research Article, Vegetos Vol: 29 Issue: 4

Combining Ability Studies for Yield and Yield Components in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)

Santha S1*, Vaithilingam R2 and Karthikeyan A3
1Plant Breeding and Genetics, Soil and Water Management Research Institute, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India
2Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai, Tamil Nadu, India
3Plant Pathology, Regional Research Station, Vridhachalam, Tamil Nadu, India
Corresponding author : Santha S
Plant Breeding and Genetics, Soil and Water Management Research Institute, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail:
santh[email protected]
Received: September 19, 2016 Accepted: September 30, 2016 Published: October 05, 2016
Citation: Santha S, Vaithilingam R, Karthikeyan A (2016) Combining Ability Studies for Yield and Yield Components in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.). Vegetos 29:4. doi:10.4172/2229-4473.1000177

Abstract

Combining Ability Studies for Yield and Yield Components in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)

In rice, a line x tester analysis with twelve high yielding genotypes viz., ADT 39, ADT 42, ADT 43, ADT (R) 45, ADT (R) 46, ADT (R) 47, TNAU Rice ADT 49, CO 47, ASD 16, TKM 11, TKM 12 and TRY 2 and five testers viz., Pusa 1460, Imp. Samba Mahsuri, Ajaya, IRBB 60 and IRBB 21 revealed that the ratio of GCA : SCA variances computed for all the six yield and yield component traits showed the predominance of non- additive gene action. Based on gca effects, ADT 43 and ADT (R) 46 were adjudged as the best combiners for five out of six biometrical traits including grain yield per plant. The parents ADT 42, Pusa 1460 and IRBB 60 possessed favourable gca effects for four biometrical traits including grain yield per plant. This was followed by ADT (R) 45, CO 47, ASD 16 and Imp. Samba Mahsuri which were considered as the next best general combiners since they exhibited desirable gca effects for three characters including hundred grain weight. ADT (R) 46/Pusa 1460 for grain yield per plant of the present study revealed the highest sca effect represent dominance and epistatic components of variation..

Keywords: Combining ability; GCA; SCA; Yield; Yield components

Keywords

Combining ability; GCA; SCA; Yield; Yield components

Introduction

Success in any breeding programme for improvement of quantitative traits like yield and their components depends upon the selection of parents and crosses. Combining ability analysis is one of the valuable tools available to ascertain the combining ability effects and helps in selectingthe desirable parents and crosses for the further exploitation. In this context, Line × Tester analysis described by Kempthorne [1] is one of the important biometrical tools which provides information on the nature of gene action of quantitative traits as additive and non additive, besides it aids to assess the general combining ability of the parents and specific combining ability of the hybrids.

Materials and Methods

The experiment was conducted at Plant Breeding and Genetics Unit of Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai. Five testers and 12 lines were grown, and at flowering stage, they were crossed with each other in a line × tester manner as described by Kempthorne [1] to produce 60 hybrids. The 12 lines were ADT 39, ADT 42, ADT 43, ADT (R) 45, ADT (R) 46, ADT (R) 47, TNAU Rice ADT 49, CO 47, ASD 16, TKM 11, TKM 12 and TRY 2 and the five testers were Pusa 1460, Imp. Samba Mahsuri, Ajaya, IRBB 60 and IRBB 21.The resultant 60 F1s together with 17 parental lines were grown in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Twenty five days old seedlings were transplanted in 3m row with 20 x 10cm spacing. Yield and yield related traits viz., days to 50 per cent flowering (DFF), plant height(cm)(PH), number of productive tillers per plant (NPT), panicle length(cm) (PL), hundred grain weight(HGW) and grain yield per plant (GY) were recorded at suitable times.

Results and Discussion

The analysis of variance for parents and hybrids in Randomized Block Design for each of the six traits viz., days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, panicle length, hundred grain weight and grain yield per plant revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes for all the characters studied.
Success in breeding for quantitative traits depends upon the gene action involved for the trait concerned and the nature of gene effects controlling the trait. If additive variance is greater, then the chance of fixing superior genotypes in the early segregating generations will be greater. If non additive variance component is predominant, the selection will have to be postponed to later generations and appropriate breeding techniques adopted to sieve the material for obtaining useful genotypes [2]. It was suggested by Baker [3] that the relative importance of general and specific combining ability should be assessed by estimating the components of variance and expressed as ratio between GCA and SCA.
In the present study, the variance due to specific combining ability (SCA) was found to be greater than the variance due to general combining ability (GCA) for all the six biometrical traits viz., days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, panicle length, hundred grain weight and grain yield per plant. The GCA/SCA was less than unity for all the characters indicating the importance of non-additive gene action in the inheritance of the traits (Table 1). Similar results were reported by Manoj Kumar et al. [4], Immanuel Selvaraj et al. [5], Reddy et al. [6] and Suresh Babu et al. [7].
Table 1: Analysis of variance (Mean sum of squares) for combining ability of different biometrical traits.
The high gca effect for a particular trait of a parent indicates the additive gene effect for the trait governed by the genes in the parent concerned. Dhillon [8] pointed out that combining ability of parents gives useful information on the choice of parents in terms of expected performance of their progenies. According to Simmonds [9] the gca effect is considered as the inherent genetic value of the parent for a trait which is due to additive gene effect and it is fixable.
Regarding yield and yield component traits, the line ADT 43 recorded significant gca effects for days to 50% flowering, plant height in the negative direction, in the positive direction for number of productive tillers per plant, panicle length and grain yield per plant. ADT (R) 46 showed significant gca effects in the negative direction for plant height, in the positive direction for number of productive tillers per plant, panicle length, hundred grain weight and grain yield per plant. ADT 42 recorded significant gca effects for plant height, panicle length, hundred grain weight and grain yield per plant. ADT (R) 45 recorded significant gca effects in the negative direction for days to 50% flowering and plant height and in the positive direction for number of productive tillers per plant while CO 47 recorded significant gca effects for days to 50% flowering, plant height and hundred grain weight. ASD 16 recorded significant gca effects for days to 50% flowering, plant height and hundred grain weight. ADT (R) 47 recorded significant gca effects for days to 50% flowering and plant height in desired direction. TKM 11 recorded significant gca effects for panicle length and hundred grain weight. ADT 39 and TKM 12 recorded significant gca effects for plant height and panicle length respectively.
It was found that the tester Pusa 1460 showed significant gca effects for number of productive tillers per plant, panicle length, hundred grain weight and grain yield per plant while IRBB 60 showed significant gca effects in the desired direction for days to 50% flowering, plant height, hundred grain weight and grain yield per plant. Imp. Samba Mahsuri, recorded higher gca effects for number of productive tiller per plant, panicle length and grain yield per plant, Ajaya for hundred grain weight and IRBB 21 for plant height registered highly significant gca effects (Tables 2-4).
Table 2: Mean performance of parents for different biometrical traits.
Table 3: General combining ability effects of lines and testers for different biometrical traits.
From the above results, it was inferred that ADT 43 and ADT (R) 46 were adjudged as the best combiners since they had significantly desirable gca effects for five out of six characters including grain yield per plant. They were followed by ADT 42, Pusa 1460 and IRBB 60 which possessed favourable gca effects for four characters including grain yield per plant. In the order of merit, ADT (R) 45, CO 47 and ASD 16 and Imp. Samba Mahsuri were considered as the next best general combiners since they exhibited desirable gca effects for three characters including hundred grain weight.
Immanuel Selvaraj et al. [10] stated that it would be valuable to compare combining ability values of the parents with their per se performance for different characters and also reported that there was close association between the gca effects and per se performance of the parents.
In the present study also, there are lines and testers with high per se performance for biometrical traits showed significant gca effects. The line ADT 42 for panicle length, hundred grain weight and grain yield per plant, ADT (R) 46 for number of productive tillers per plant, panicle length and hundred grain weight, ADT 43 and ADT (R) 45 for days to
50 % flowering and plant height, CO 47 for days to 50 % flowering and plant height, TNAU Rice ADT 49 for number of productive tillers per plant, ASD 16 for days to 50% flowering and TKM 11 for hundred grain weight had both high per se performance and significant gca effects.
Similarly, the tester IRBB 60 for days to 50 % flowering, plant height and hundred grain weight, Pusa 1460 for panicle length and hundred grain weight, Imp. Samba Mahsuri for number of productive tillers and Ajaya for hundred grain weight had both high per se performance and significant gca effects (Tables 3 and 5).
Table 4: Specific combining ability effects of different hybrid combinations for different biometrical traits.
Table 5: Promising parents for important biometrical traits based on the per se performance and gca effects.
The overall assessment had revealed that ADT 42, ADT (R) 46, and IRBB 60 were adjudged as the best parents, since they registered high per se performance coupled with high gca effect for three characters studied. These findings are in close agreement with Dwivedi and Pandey [11] who reported that per se performance of the parents helps to provide a good identification of their combining ability also. Therefore, the parents identified for high per se performance and gca effects could be included in the hybridization programme for the improvement of respective traits in this crop.
However, the ranking of parents based on per se performance and gca effects showed that the parallelism between per se performance and gca effects does not exist always as stated by Radhi Devi et al. [12] and Peng et al. [13]. These parameters were not found to occur in parents ADT 39, TKM 12 and TRY 2. Though they were not having both parameters they could not be eliminated since the per se performance of parents is the actual value of the character concerned while gca effects are predictable. Therefore, even if the parents are not having desirable gca effects the parents can be considered for further exploitation if they possess high order of per se performance.
Specific combining ability is the deviation from the performance predicted under general combining ability [14]. The sca value of any cross is helpful in predicting the performance of the hybrids which are better than the gca of parents [15]. With regard to yield and its attributes, the hybrids ADT (R) 46/IRBB 21 (days to 50 % flowering), TRY 2/IRBB 21 (plant height), TKM 11/Pusa 1460 (number of productive tillers per plant), TRY 2/IRBB 60 (panicle length), TRY 2/ Ajaya (hundred grain weight), and ADT (R) 46/Pusa 1460 (grain yield per plant) of the present study revealed the highest sca effect represent dominance and epistatic components of variation (Tables 4 and 6).
Table 6: Five best hybrids selected for important biometrical traits based on sca effects.
These crosses showing high sca effects are expected to throw desirable segregants in the subsequent generations. So they could be used in the further breeding programme.
Dwivedi and Pandey [10] reported that the crosses involving at least one parent with high gca effects would be best and ideal for selection and these crosses were expected to produce segregants of fixable nature in segregating generation following simple pedigree method. In the present study, among the top ranking hybrids for biometrical traits, the hybrids ADT (R) 46/IRBB 60, TNAU Rice ADT 49/ IRBB 60 and ADT 39/IRBB 60 (days to 50% flowering), TRY 2/ IRBB 21, ADT 42/Pusa 1460 and TKM 11/IRBB 60 (plant height), TKM 11/Pusa 1460 (number of productive tillers per plant), ADT 43/Ajaya (panicle length), ADT (R) 46/IRBB 21, CO 47/Imp. Samba Mahsuri and TKM 12/IRBB 60 (hundred grain weight) and TRY 2/ Imp. Samba Mahsuri (grain yield per plant) recorded high sca effects involving at least one parent with high gca effects (Table 6)
On the other hand, the hybrids ADT (R) 46/IRBB 21 and TKM 11/Ajaya (days to 50% flowering), ADT 43/IRBB 60 (number of productive tillers per plant) and TRY 2/IRBB 60 and ADT 39/IRBB 21 (panicle length) recorded high sca effects involving at least one parent with moderate gca effect. The high sca effect of these crosses may be due to complementary type of gene effects. This is in agreement with the results of Ram et al. [15]. TNAU Rice ADT 49/Imp. Samba Mahsuri (number of productive tillers per plant), ADT (R) 46 /Imp. Samba Mahsuri (panicle length), TRY 2/Ajaya and ADT 42/IRBB 60 (hundred grain weight), ADT (R) 46/Pusa 1460, ADT (R) 45/IRBB 60 and ADT (R) 45/Pusa 1460 recorded high sca effect involving the parents with high x high gca effects. Subbarao and Aruna [16] stated that parents with high x high gca effects indicating the presence of additive x additive type gene action between favourable alleles contributed by the two parents which was considered to be of fixable nature. These hybrids would be very much useful for further breeding.

Acknowledgment

I greatfully aknowledge the reputed Tamil Nadu Agricultural University,Coimbatore for deputing me for my Ph.D programme and to do .research in rice under study leave.

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