VEGETOS: An International Journal of Plant ResearchOnline ISSN: 2229-4473
Print ISSN: 0970-4078

Research Article, Vegetos Vol: 30 Issue: 4

Effect of Growth Dynamics, Nutrient Status and Energetics of Linseed as Influenced By Different Agro-input Management Practices

Patel R*, Dwivedi SK and Patel NK

Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Chhattisgarh, India

*Corresponding Author : Patel R
Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
Tel: 0771-2444074
E-mail: [email protected]

Received: June 07, 2017 Accepted: July 25, 2017 Published: July 28, 2017

Citation: Patel R, Dwivedi SK, Patel NK (2017) Effect of Growth Dynamics, Nutrient Status and Energetics of Linseed as Influenced By Different Agro-input Management Practices. Vegetos 30:4. doi: 10.5958/2229-4473.2017.00184.7

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of agro-input management practices on growth, nutrients status and energetics of Linseed at the Instructional cum Research Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh during Rabi (OctoberMarch) 2015-16. The data revealed that the seed rates did not give significant influence on plant population, plant height, seed yield and stover yield; however Crop Growth Rate and Relative Growth Rate at the time of harvest were significantly high. In case of energetics parameters, the higher values of energy output - input ratio (1018.76) and seed production efficiency (237.01) were resulted with the application of 30 kg ha-1seed rate. Whereas, application of recommended dose of fertilization (RDF)+farmyard manure placement in rows @ 5 t ha-1 (N3) recorded higher growth parameter viz. plant height 78.92 cm, 87.06 cm, and 88.44 cm at 60, 90 days after sowing (DAS) and at harvest, respectively, yield attributes viz. seed yield (2100 kg ha-1), stover yield (4885 kg ha-1) and energy input, net gain energy and energy output - input ratio (1039.34). The uptake of N, P and K were also observed significantly higher in the same treatment viz. 52.55, 18.36 and 77.24 kg ha-1 respectively. In case of foliar spray, application of 2% urea at 15, 40, 65 and 90 DAS (F3) gave higher growth parameter viz. plant height 78.92 cm, 86.89 cm and 88.37 cm at 60, 90 DAS and at harvest, respectively, yield attributes viz. seed yield (2089 kg ha-1), stover yield (4772 kg ha-1) and seed production efficiency (246.99). The uptake of N, P and K were also observed significantly higher in the same treatment viz. 50.99, 18.13 and 75.57 kg ha-1 respectively. Synergistic effect of seed rate 30 kg ha-1 (S2), RDF+FYM placement in rows @ 5 t ha-1 (N3) and foliar application of 2% urea at 15, 40, 65 and 90 DAS (F3)(S2×N3×F3) resulted in the higher seed production efficiency.

Keywords: Linseed; Growth parameters; Nutrient content; Uptake and energetics

Abbreviation

CGR: Crop Growth Rate; RGR: Relative Growth Rate; RDF: Recommended Dose of Fertilization; FYM: Farmyard Manure; DAS: Days after Sowing

Introduction

Linseed (seeds of Linum usitatissimum L.) is highly nutritious, unique (best herbal source of omega-3 fatty acids) and emerging among oilseeds for its technical grade vegetable oil and good quality fibre producing ability. At present, the demand and supply of edible oil is 18.94 and 10.08 million tons respectively. The gap in demand and supply is about 47% i.e. 8.86 million tons being filled by import of edible oil [1]. ISOR has projected the demand for the year 2020 and 2050 to be 14.57 and 24.10 kg year-1 respectively [2]. Chhattisgarh is one of the important linseed growing state of India, where about 0.026 million hectare area is under linseed cultivation with annual production of 0.011 million tons, however, linseed productivity in Chhattisgarh (423 kg ha-1) and Indian national average (498 kg ha- 1) is low compared to global productivity (877 kg ha-1) [1]. Among the agro-techniques, judicious application of seed rates, nutrients, particularly the nitrogen, phosphorus and potash play the important role for increasing linseed productivity [3]. Application of fertilizer is considered imperative for increasing crop production. Long-time studies being carried out at several locations in India indicated that application of all the needy nutrients through chemical fertilizers have deleterious effect on soil health leading to unsustainable yields [4]. Therefore, nutrient supply system is in need of improvement in terms of integrated nutrient management involving the use of chemical fertilizers in conjunction with FYM. Balanced fertilizer is the application of essential plant nutrients in light proportion and in optimum quantity for a specific soil crop condition. Chhattisgarh, having third highest linseed yield, the state is facing gap between farmer’s traditional practice and modern technology [5]. The major reason for low productivity of linseed may be due to adoption of primitive sowing method like Utera and farmers having poor knowledge with regards to integrated nutrient management and perpetual scarcity of basic agro-inputs like improved seed, fertilizers etc. Therefore, there is a need to improve nutrient supply system in terms of integrated nutrient management involving the use of chemical fertilizers in conjunction with foliar application of nutrients to the plants, and quickly counter a mineral imbalance that would inhibit plant metabolism [6]. Energy use in agriculture has been increasing in response to increasing population, limited supply of arable land and a desire for higher standards of living [7]. Energy output and net energy are crucial parameters when the availability of arable land is the limiting factor for crop production [8]. Efficient use of energy is one of the principal requirements for sustainable agricultural system which helps to achieve sustained productivity; and contributes to the economy, profitability and competitiveness of agriculture in rural areas [9].

Materials and Methods

The study area

A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season (October- March) of 2015-16 at the Instructional cum Research Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (21o4′ N, 81o35′ E, 290.20 meter above mean sea level) under Chhattisgarh plains (Agro climatic zones of India). The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications and eighteen treatments. The treatment consisted of two seed rate viz. 25 kg ha-1 (S1), 30 kg ha-1 (S2), three nutrient management viz. RDF 60:30:30 N, P2O5 & K2O Kg ha-1(N1), RDF+Incorporation of FYM @ 5 t ha-1 (N2), RDF+FYM placement in rows @ 5 t ha-1 (N3) and three foliar spray, water spray at 15, 40, 65 and 90 DAS (F1), foliar spray of Nitrobenzene @ 0.06% at 15, 40, 65 and 90 DAS (F2) and foliar spray of 2% urea at 15, 40, 65 and 90 DAS (F3). Linseed (cultivar RLC-92) was planted on 22nd November, 2015 and was harvested on 12th March, 2016. All the recommended agronomic management practices were followed except for the treatments. During the investigation, cumulative rainfall was 16.1 mm while average minimum and maximum temperature, morning and evening relative humidity, evaporation and sunshine viz. 15.5°C, 30.4°C, 83.4%, 36.8%, 3.3 mm and 6.0 hours, respectively. Composite soil samples from 0-20 cm depth were collected from ten randomly selected places in the experimental area, prior to start of the field experiment, to evaluate the nutrient status of the soil, with the help of soil auger. Composite samples remain about 250 g and then it was used for analysis of the initial status of the physical and chemical properties of the soil and results of soil analysis was clayey in texture, neutral in pH (6.68), normal in EC (0.18) and had low in available N (226 kg ha-1), medium in available P (12.64 kg ha-1), high in available K (367 kg ha-1) and medium organic carbon (0.50%). Nutrient content N, P and K in seed and stover were also analyzed by using standard procedure.

Energy input and output was calculated from sowing to harvest of all the treatments of linseed crop. It was estimated in Mega Joules (MJ) ha-1 with reference to the standard values prescribed by Mittal, Dhawan and Devasenapathy et al. [10,11]. The standard energy coefficient for seed and stover of linseed was multiplied with their respective yields and summed up to obtain the total energy output. The energy input for linseed was calculated by adding the respective values under linseed crop. The various energy indices were calculated by using the following formulae used by Kumar et al. [12].

Net energy return (MJ ha-1)=Energy output (MJ ha-1) – Energy input (MJ ha-1)

Energy profitability (MJ ha-1)=Net energy return (MJ ha-1) / Energy output (MJ ha-1)

Energy use efficiency (Energy ratio)=Energy output (MJ ha-1) / Energy input (MJ ha-1)

Energy productivity (kg MJ-1)=Seed yield (kg ha-1) / Energy input (MJ ha-1)

Specific energy (MJ kg-1)=Energy input (MJ ha-1) / Seed yield (kg ha-1)

Energy Intensiveness (MJ Rs.-1)=Energy input (MJ ha-1) / Cost of cultivation (Rs. ha-1)

Results and Discussion

The data shown in Tables 1 and 2 and Figures 1 and 2 revealed that growth, yield attributing character and yield were significantly affected due to nutrient management and foliar spray. Between seed rates, no significant difference was observed in growth and yield of linseed. Among nutrient management, the application of RDF+FYM placement in rows @ rate of 5 t ha-1(N3) gave highest plant population, plant height, CGR, RGR, seed yield (kg ha-1) and stover yield (kg ha-1). The application of Recommended Dose of Fertilizer (RDF) 60:30:30 N, P2O5& K2O Kg ha-1(N1) gave, lowest plant population, plant height, seed yield (kg ha-1) and stover yield (kg ha-1), this might be due to nonincorporation of FYM in such nutrient management system which in turn improve overall fertility status of the soil, efficient partitioning of accumulated photosynthate, enhanced yield attributes and ultimately increased seed yield. Similar observations were noted by Delesa et al.that the increase in yield attributing characters of linseed with the application of major nutrient and secondary nutrient(s) [13,14]. In case of the foliar spray, application of 2% urea at 15, 40, 65 and 90 DAS(F3) recorded highest plant population, plant height, CGR, RGR, seed yield (kg ha-1) and stover yield (kg ha-1). Whereas application of water spray (F1) gave the lowest plant population, lowest plant height, CGR, RGR, seed yield (kg ha-1) and stover yield (kg ha-1). Physiological activities like chlorophyll content and total photosynthetic pigments in leaves were significantly increased with increasing nitrogen level. Foliar application of urea remarkably improved growth traits, which was also corroborated by El-Kady et al. [15].

Treatment CGR (g plant-1 day-1) RGR (g g-1 plant-1 day-1) N content P content K content Total N uptake Total P uptake Total K uptake            
  30-60 DAS 60-90 DAS At harvest 30-60 DAS 60-90 DAS At harvest (%) (%) (%) (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1)      
              Seed Stover Seed Stover Seed Stover (seed+stover) (seed+stover) (seed+stover)
Seed rate                              
S1 0.061 0.259 0.092 0.387 0.978 1.061 1.65 0.33 0.38 0.21 0.86 1.18 47.12 16.49 68.36
S2 0.062 0.236 0.085 0.392 0.947 1.032 1.67 0.34 0.4 0.22 0.94 1.19 48.32 17.5 71.27
SE m ± 0.001 0.01 0.003 0.006 0.015 0.014 0.02 0.01 0 0 0.03 0.01 0.62 0.37 1.12
CD (P=0.05) 0.004 0.03 0.007 0.016 0.042 0.04 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS
Nutrient management                            
N1 0.057 0.18 0.069 0.366 0.861 0.947 1.61 0.32 0.39 0.21 0.87 1.17 42.81 15.85 62.61
N2 0.06 0.247 0.088 0.384 0.971 1.055 1.65 0.33 0.38 0.21 0.9 1.19 47.79 16.78 69.6
N3 0.068 0.315 0.108 0.418 1.056 1.138 1.7 0.35 0.4 0.22 0.92 1.19 52.55 18.36 77.24
SE m ± 0.001 0.01 0.003 0.006 0.015 0.014 0.02 0.01 0 0 0.03 0.01 0.75 0.46 1.37
CD (P=0.05) 0.004 0.03 0.007 0.016 0.042 0.04 NS NS NS NS NS NS 2.18 1.33 3.96
Foliar spray                              
F1 0.057 0.19 0.071 0.359 0.874 0.96 1.64 0.33 0.37 0.2 0.88 1.17 44.6 15.33 64.3
F2 0.062 0.257 0.091 0.391 0.981 1.065 1.66 0.33 0.39 0.21 0.89 1.18 47.57 17.53 69.59
F3 0.067 0.295 0.103 0.418 1.032 1.115 1.67 0.34 0.4 0.22 0.93 1.19 50.99 18.13 75.57
SE m ± 0.003 0.02 0.005 0.01 0.025 0.025 0.02 0.1 0 0 0.03 0.01 0.75 0.46 1.37
CD (P=0.05)             NS NS NS NS NS NS 2.18 1.33 3.96

Table 1: N, P, K content in seed and stover and total uptake by linseed as influenced by different treatments.

Treatment Seed yield
(kg ha-1)
Stover yield
(kg ha-1)
Energy input
 (Q.MJ X 103)
Net gain energy
 (Q.MJ X 103)
Energy output - input ratio
Seed + Stover
Seed Production efficiency
 (Q.MJ X 103)
Seed rate        
S1 1934 4340 8.30 8258.69 996.05 232.95
S2 1971 4470 8.33 8475.55 1018.76 237.01
SE m ± 21.11 63.28 - - - -
CD (P=0.05) NS NS - - - -
Nutrient management        
N1 1794 3978 7.31 7601.93 1039.26 245.05
N2 1963 4351 8.81 8316.20 943.63 222.52
N3 2100 4885 8.83 9183.23 1039.34 237.37
SE m ± 25.85 77.5 - - - -
CD (P=0.05) 74.48 223.28 - - - -
Foliar spray        
F1 1806 4022 8.18 7675.03 942.12 221.65
F2 1961 4420 8.32 8398.83 1012.05 236.32
F3 2089 4772 8.47 9027.50 1068.06 246.99
SE m ± 25.85 77.5 - - - -
CD (P=0.05) 74.4 223.28 - - - -

Table 2: Seed, stover yield and energetics (MJ ha-1) of linseed as influenced by different treatments.

Figure 1: Plant population of linseed as influenced by seed rate, nutrient management and foliar spray.

Figure 2: Plant height (cm) of linseed as influenced by seed rate, nutrient management and foliar spray.

N, P and K content (%) and uptake (kg ha-1) by seed and stover

Between seed rates, no significant difference was found on N, P and K content and uptake by seed and stover. However, maximum N, P and K content and uptake was found with the application of seed rate 30 kg ha-1. Among nutrient management, the application of RDF+ FYM placement in rows (N3) gave significantly higher total uptake of N, P and K as compared to others. However, content of N, P and K in seed and stover was found non-significant. Among the foliar spray, application of 2% urea at 15, 40, 65 and 90 DAS (F3) gave significantly higher total uptake of N, P and K as compared to others. However, content of N, P and K in seed and stover was found nonsignificant. The total uptake is directly related with the biomass and which is multiplied with the content of nutrient that’s why the uptake of nutrient was significantly higher whereas content of nutrient was found non-significant among application of different agro input management in linseed. Similar results were also obtained by Heard and Park [16,17].

Energy indices

Computations on energetics have been presented in Table 2. Data revealed that between seed rates, energy input, net gain energy, energy output - input ratio (1018.76) and seed production efficiency (237.01) were higher with the application of 30 kg ha-1seed rate. Whereas, among nutrient management, the application of RDF+FYM placement in rows (N3) gave higher value of energy input, net gain energy and energy output - input ratio (1039.34), but, the application of RDF (N1) produced higher value of Seed Production efficiency (245.05). Among the foliar spray, application of 2% urea at 15, 40, 65 and 90 DAS (F3) gave higher value of energy input, net gain energy, energy output - input ratio (1068.06) and seed production efficiency (246.99) as compared to others.

Conclusion

Seed yield, nutrient uptake (N, P & K) and energy output - input ratio of linseed was recorded maximum when crop was sown with higher seed rate i.e. 30 kg ha-1(S2) and applied with RDF+FYM placement in rows (N3) combined with foliar application of 2% urea (F3). Synergistic effect of seed rate 30 kg ha-1 (S2), RDF+FYM placement in rows @ 5 t ha-1 (N3) and foliar application of 2% urea at 15, 40, 65 and 90 DAS (F3)(S2×N3×F3) resulted in the higher seed production efficiency. Though N1 nutrient management system yielded slightly higher seed production efficiency (245.05), which is ascribed to its lower energy input than N3 system, however, N3 system was superior to N1 system in terms of seed yield, stover yield, net energy gain.

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