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Research Article, J Plant Physiol Pathol Vol: 4 Issue: 3

Effects of Calcium Fertilization on the Susceptibility of Dioscorea Species to the Yam Storage Pathogens Aspergillus Niger van Tiegh and Botryodiplodia Theobromae Pat

Otusanya MO1*, Enikuomehin O1, Popoola A1, Adetunji M2, Kehinde O3, Okeleye K4, Latunde-Dada O1 and Amusa O5
1Department of Crop Protection, College of Plant Science and Crop Production, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
2Deoartment of Soil Science and Land Management, College of Plant Science and Crop Production, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
3Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
4Department of Plant Physiology and Crop Prod., Plant Science and Crop Production, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
5Department of Crop Protection, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ijebu- Ode, Nigeria
Corresponding author : Otusanya M. Oluleke
Department of Crop Protection, College of Plant Science and Crop Production, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: May 03, 2016 Accepted: August 05, 2016 Published: August 10, 2016
Citation: Otusanya MO, Enikuomehin O, Popoola A, Adetunji M, Kehinde O, et al. (2016) Effects of Calcium Fertilization on the Susceptibility of Dioscorea Species to the Yam Storage Pathogens Aspergillus Niger van Tiegh and Botryodiplodia Theobromae Pat. J Plant Physiol Pathol 4:3. doi: 10.4172/2329-955X.1000155

Abstract

The effects of soil amendment with basal dose of nitrogen (60 kg ha- 1), phosphorus (30 kg ha-1) and potassium (75 kg ha-1) for Yams Dioscorea species in South West Nigeria and calcium carbonate were assessed on yield and susceptibility to two storage rot pathogens, in Dioscorea alata TDa 92-2, D. rotundata TDr 131 and D. esculenta TDe 89-1. The study site at the Teaching and Research Farms of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, had been monocropped to yams without fertilizer for three years before the study. A 3 by 5 factorial desgn, with the Dioscorea species as main plots and 0 kg ha-1, 2 kg ha-1, 4 kg ha-1, 6 kg ha-1 and 8 kg ha-1 calcium carbonate as subplot treatments, was used in each of two years. Aspergillus niger van Tiegh. and Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. were the two yam storage pathogens used. Pre-planting soil analysis in the two years revealed calcium, magnesium and potassium below the critical levels required for Dioscorea species in South Western Nigeria. Calcium fertilizer enhanced resistance and reduced weight loss in yam ‘’sections;’’ of D. rotundata TDr 131 and Dioscorea alata TDa 92-2 to the pathogens after long-terms storage of over four months in both years. Response of whole tubers incubated for an additional (after the four months) period of ten weeks and six weeks in years one and two respectively, was not significantiy (P=0.05) different from the control. Futher work to determine endogenous or physiological reasons for this is necessary. D. esculenta TDe 89-1 was more susceptible to the rot pathogens than the other two species. D. esculenta TDe 89-1 was also not significantly different in infection or weight loss than the control in the two years, necessitating a need to ascertain optimum fertilizer placement methods for this species in Nigeria. There were no differences in tuber number or tuber weight per plant at the treatment levels.

Keywords: Calcium fertilization; Monocropped; Aspergillus niger; Botryodiplodia theobromae

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