VEGETOS: An International Journal of Plant ResearchOnline ISSN: 2229-4473
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Research Article, Vegetos Vol: 30 Issue: 1

Fibre Productivity, Seed Quality and Profitability of Linseed as Influenced by Irrigation Scheduling and Nitrogen Levels

Patel RK1*, Tomar GS2 and Dwivedi SK2
1RAEO, Office of SADO, Dabhara-495692, Department of Agriculture, Government of Chhattisgarh, India
2Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.)-492012, India
Corresponding author : Patel RK
RAEO, Office of SADO, Dabhara-495692, Department of Agriculture, Government of Chhattisgarh, India
Tel: +919981105211
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: December 06, 2016Accepted: January 27, 2017 Published: January 30, 2017
Citation: Patel RK, Tomar GS, Dwivedi SK (2017) Fibre Productivity, Seed Quality and Profitability of Linseed as Influenced by Irrigation Scheduling and Nitrogen Levels. Vegetos 30:1. doi: 10.5958/2229-4473.2017.00013.1

Abstract

Fibre Productivity, Seed Quality and Profitability of Linseed as Influenced by Irrigation Scheduling and Nitrogen Levels

A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2015-16 at the Instructional cum Research Farm, IGKV, Raipur to study the fibre productivity, seed quality and profitability of linseed crop under different irrigation scheduling and nitrogen levels. The experiment was laid out in split plot design keeping four irrigation scheduling viz., come-up (I1 ), one (I2 ), two (I3 ) and three irrigation (I4 ) in main plots and four levels of nitrogen viz., control (N0 ), 30 kg (N1 ), 60 kg (N2 ) and 90 kg N ha-1 (N3 ) in sub plots with three replications. Results revealed that the application of two (I3 ) and three irrigations (I4 ) were equally effective; and application of 90 kg N ha-1 (N3 ) exhibited superior in terms of fibre, seed, oil and protein yield as well as higher gross return, net income and B:C ratio. With respect to interaction between irrigation scheduling and levels of nitrogen, two irrigations × 90 kg N ha-1 (I3 × N3 ) gave highest fibre (699 kg ha-1) and seed yield with highest net income and B:C ratio (3.53)... p>

Keywords: Fibre yield; Irrigation scheduling; N levels; Quality; Economics; Linseed

Keywords

Fibre yield; Irrigation scheduling; N levels; Quality; Economics; Linseed

Introduction

Globally, among the oilseeds, linseed or flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the oldest oilseed crops grown widely in Asia, America and Europe for oil, fibre and seed purpose. Its scientific name Linum usitatissimum L. translated as ‘linen most beautiful” aptly describes this versality. Linseed is highly nutritious, unique (best herbal source of omega-3 fatty acids) and emerging among oilseeds for its technical grade vegetable oil producing ability, containing 35-45% oil and good quality fibre producing ability. The fibre of linseed plant is naturally smooth, good luster having outstanding strength (two to three times stronger than cotton), fineness, durability and quick water absorbing capacity; and used as raw material for producing better grade “Linen”, canvas, hosepipes and various military articles [1]. Flax having natural fibres and gaining importance day by day due to its bio-degradable and eco-friendly nature. Flax fibre production in India is negligible, accounts for ~ 2% of the production of natural fibres [2]. The demand for flax fibre for its urgent and essential domestic purposes is fulfilled mostly through import of raw flax fibre from the foreign countries and spend considerable foreign currency for importing flax fibre. Huge quantity of linseed straw remains unutilized for fibre extraction due to non-availability of suitable machine for fibre extraction [3]. The utilization of available flax plant for fibre or textile purpose will not only increase the income of farmers but also help in employment generation for rural and urban masses along with smart earnings of foreign currency to improve agro socio-economy [2]. The demand, supply and gap of edible oil in India are 18.94, 10.08 and 8.86 (47%) million tons, respectively [4]. Chhattisgarh having third highest yield gap between improved technology and farmer’s practice in irrigated condition [5]. Chhattisgarh is one of the important linseed growing states of India, where it is cultivated in about 0.026 million-hectare area with a production of 0.011 million tones but its seed productivity is low in Chhattisgarh (423 kg ha-1) and national (498 kg ha-1) compared to global (877 kg ha-1) productivity [4].
The major reason for low productivity of linseed may be due to adoption of primitive sowing method like Utera and perpetual scarcity of basic agro-inputs like irrigation, fertilizers etc. Growing conditions and crop management practices also influence protein percentage [6]. Chhattisgarh government is giving more emphasis to grow oilseed and pulse crops in place of summer paddy on account of heavy water requirement. Increase in population and living standards has led to increase in demand of food and fibre which has also resulted in the adoption of irrigation to sustain plant growth [7]. Water stress is considered one of the most important factors limiting plant performance and yield in the world and impact on growth, leaf photosynthesis, seed and fibre yield of linseed [8]. The scheduling of irrigation in linseed plays an important role in the growth and development of linseed crop; and to maximize yield and oil content, adequate soil moisture must be maintained during critical period. To improve crop yields, improvement in N productivity (NP) is desirable. Besides other agronomic factors nitrogen is major factor which determine the crop vigor and ultimately yield of linseed, especially when grown under irrigation. Nitrogen is an essential element for flax growth to build up protoplasm and protein structure which induce cell division, meristematic activity and further increased cell number and size with an overall growth in flax growth, consequently more fibre and seed production. It was found that increasing N levels increased yield and quality of flax [9]. It was therefore felt that for bumper harvest of linseed fibre by applying appropriate irrigation scheduling and levels of nitrogen to be standardized for the Chhattisgarh farmers.

Materials and Methods

Experimental site
A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2015- 16 at the Instructional cum Research Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (21o4′ N latitude, 81o35′ E longitude and altitude 290.20 meter above mean sea level), Chhattisgarh, India. The soil was clayey in texture (20.45% sand, 35.36% silt, 44.19% clay), neutral in pH (6.68), normal in EC (0.18) and had low in available N (226 kg ha-1), medium in available P (12.64 kg ha-1), high in available K (367 kg ha-1) and low in organic carbon (0.48%); were analyzed before the sowing of crop. During the investigation, cumulative rainfall was 16.1 mm while average maximum and minimum temperature, morning and evening relative humidity, morning and evening vapour pressure, wind speed, evaporation and sunshine of 30.70C, 15.60C, 82.8%, 35.3%, 12.1, 11.4, 2.8 kmph, 3.3 mm and 6.5 hours respectively.
Treatments detail
The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with three replications. The treatment consisted of four irrigation scheduling viz. come-up irrigation (I1), one irrigation at maximum branching (I2), two irrigations at branching and flowering stage (I3) and three irrigations at branching, before flowering and capsule formation stage (I4) in main plots; and four levels of nitrogen viz., no nitrogen, 30 kg (RDN- 50%), 60 kg (RDN) and 90 kg N ha-1 (RDN+50%) denoted by N0, N1, N2 and N3 respectively, arranged in sub-plots. The come-up irrigation was given to the all treatments just after sowing for maintaining soil moisture to proper germination of linseed crop then irrigation was scheduled according to the treatments.
Crop management
Linseed (cv: RLC-92) was planted on 21st November, 2015 with the seed rate of 25 kg ha-1. After that recommended dose of P2O5 and K2O (30:30 kg ha-1) were applied as basal dressing to all subplots treatments, while N was given as per the treatments. All the recommended agronomic management practices were followed except the treatments. The crop was harvested near to the root on 20th Febuary to 08th March, 2016 at physiological maturity.
Retting and fibre extraction
After harvesting, the crop was sun dried, threshed with wooden sticks and manually winnowing were done then seed and stover yield was noted. The stalks (stover) so obtained were cut from first branching to separate the important unbranching stalk (technical height) then cleaned properly and tied into small bundles for pit retting. Remove the properly retted stalks from pit and wash them 4-5 times with water thereafter sun dried in open air for 5-7 days to make it ready for scutching and retted stover yield was noted. Power operated fibre scutching machine were used for separation of fibre from the retted stalks, and to remove the non-fibrous material. The cleaned fibres of each plots were tied in small bundles and yield was noted. The portion of retted stover (%) was calculated as retted stover yield ÷ stover yield × 100, while fibre content (%) = fibre yield ÷ retted stover yield × 100, fiber recovery (%) = fiber yield ÷ stover yield × 100.
Computation of nitrogen content, uptake, recovery (%) and productivity: Nitrogen content in seed and stover were determined by Kjeldahl method [10]. On the basis of N content, the N uptake, protein content (conversion factor 6.25) and protein yield were worked out. To compare the relative merits of the nitrogen levels, apparent N recovery (%) was calculated as per the formula [11].
image
Where, Nt and N0 are the amount of nitrogen recovered by the crop from nitrogen treated plot and control plot (kg ha-1), respectively; and Na is the amount of nitrogen applied (kg ha-1).
Nitrogen productivity (seed yield kg ha-1 per kg N applied) or agronomic efficiency (AE) is the economic yield per unit of N applied were calculated by following formula:
image
Oil extraction and economics
Oil was extracted from the ground linseed seed with the help of soxhlet apparatus as described [12] using petroleum ether as solvent. In economics, the cost of linseed cultivation was calculated on the prevailing prices of different inputs used. The production was converted into gross return (₹ ha-1) on the basis of prevailing prices of market. Net return was calculated by deducting the cost of cultivation from the gross return. Benefit cost ratio was computed by dividing net return with cost of cultivation. Economic efficiency was computed by dividing net return with days to physiological maturity.
Statistical Analysis
Data collected were statistically analyzed by using the procedure [13]. The differences among treatments were compared by applying ‘F’ test of significance at 5 percent level of probability.

Results and Discussion

Fibre yield parameters
The fibre yield of linseed was directly interacted with technical plant height, fibre content and stover yield; the technical stalk contains the highest quality fibre, thus a long unbranched stalk is desirable. Data presented (Table 1) showed that, the tallest plant (91.13 cm) and highest unbranched stover height (72.09 cm) were observed with the application of three irrigations (I4) which consequently gave maximum stover yield (3814 kg ha-1), however application of two irrigations (I3) was observed statistically at par with the same irrigation level. In case of portion of retted stover (%) was observed non-significant difference. The significantly highest fibre content (20.06%) and fibre recovery (14.41%) were recorded with crop applied two irrigations (I3), however, application of three irrigations (I4) was observed statistically at par with the same treatment. The higher value might be due to availability of soil moisture as well as nutrients during crop growth and high water retention in the root zone. Similar findings were also reported [14]. With respect to levels of nitrogen, the application of 90 kg N ha-1 (N3) obtained significantly taller plant (88.34 cm) and highest unbranched stover height (69.50 cm) which consequently gave maximum stover yield (3774 kg ha-1), however the application of 60 kg N ha-1 (N2) was found at par. The portion of retted stover (%) was observed non-significant difference. Significantly highest fibre content (19.76%) was recorded with the application of 90 kg N ha-1 (N3), however the application of 60 kg N ha-1 (N2) was found at par, but in case of highest fibre recovery (14.07%) was recorded with the application of 90 kg N ha-1 (N3). The increment in the fibre yield parameters might be due to increased availability of nitrogen and other nutrients which enhanced vegetative growth of the plant. Similar findings were also reported [15].
Table 1: Fibre yield parameters and fibre yield of linseed as influenced by irrigation scheduling and levels of nitrogen.
Fibre yield
Fibre yield of linseed was influenced significantly due to irrigation scheduling and levels of nitrogen (Table 1). Results revealed that, the application of three (I4) and two irrigations (I3) were equally effective and obtained significantly higher fibre yield (550 and 547 kg ha-1 respectively), while the lowest fibre yield (231 kg ha-1) was harvested from come-up irrigation (I1). Figure 1 revealed that, by giving one (I2) and two irrigation (I3) the fibre yield increased by about 87 and 137%, respectively from come-up irrigation (I1), while giving three irrigations (I4) fibre yield remained constant as compared to two irrigations (I3). Figure 1 also revealed that, the application of comeup irrigation (I1) and one irrigation (I2) gave 48 and 2% less fibre yield compared to mean seed yield (440 kg ha-1), while with the application of two (I3) and three irrigations (I4) produced 24 and 25% higher fibre yield, respectively. The greater fibre yield of linseed in two and three irrigations might be due to higher vegetative growth and photosynthesis by the plants. Similarly, the fibre yield plant-1 in irrigated plots was three times more than in rainfed plots [14]. As regards to levels of nitrogen, the maximum fibre yield (537 kg ha-1) was obtained from the application of 90 kg N ha-1 (N3), however statistically on par with the application of 60 kg N ha-1 (N2), while the lowest fibre yield (302 kg ha-1) was harvested from no nitrogen (N0) treatment. Figure 1, exhibited that increasing the levels of nitrogen from zero to 30 and 60 kg ha-1, the fibre yield was sharply increased by 34 and 71% respectively, but in next nitrogen level (N3) fibre yield was slightly increased (78%). Figure 1 also revealed that, the no nitrogen (N0) and the application of 30 kg N ha-1 (N1) treatments gave 31 and 8% less fibre yield, respectively, compared to mean seed yield (440 kg ha-1), while the application of 60 kg N (N2) and 90 kg N ha-1 (N3) resulted in 17 and 22% higher fibre yield in respective treatments. The greater fibre yield of linseed with the application of 90 kg N ha-1 might be due to higher vegetative growth and photosynthesis by the plants. Similar results were reported [9,14,16].
Figure 1: Percentage variation of fibre yield over mean yield and control treatment as influenced by irrigation scheduling and levels of nitrogen.
The interaction between irrigation scheduling and levels of nitrogen had a significant effect on fibre yield of linseed (Table 2). The average fibre yield varied from 177 to 699 kg ha-1. Treatment received two irrigations with 90 kg N ha-1 (I3 × N3) gave higher fibre yield (699 kg ha-1), while treatment received come-up irrigation with no use of nitrogen (I1 × N0) produced lesser fibre yield (177 kg ha-1). It was due to lesser plant height and dry matter accumulation by the plants. The data clearly reported that the fibre yield obtained about three times higher as compared to come-up irrigation with no nitrogen (I1 × N0) that is possible with the application of suitable combination of irrigation scheduling and levels of nitrogen.
Table 2: Interaction effect of irrigation scheduling and levels of nitrogen on fibre yield of linseed (kg ha-1).
Oil content and yield
Data showed (Table 3) that the highest oil content (41.80%) was obtained with the application of three irrigations (I4), however statistically on par with the application of two irrigations (I3), while the lowest oil content (34.02%) was obtained from come-up irrigation (I1). The greater oil content in seed of linseed in two and three irrigations might be due to no moisture stress especially at flowering and grain filling stage. Similar results were reported [17,18,19]. As regard to levels of nitrogen, the oil content in seed increased upto 60 kg N ha-1 but further increase in N level to 90 kg ha-1 slightly reduced oil content this might be due to synthesis of proteins and carbohydrates takes place at the expense of fatty acids. Similar results were reported [16,20].
Table 3: Yield and qualitative characteristics of linseed as influenced by irrigation scheduling and levels of nitrogen.
The ultimate objective of oilseed crop production is the oil yield, which is the product of seed yield and seed oil content. Increased oil yield per area can be achieved by increasing both seed yield and seed oil content. The effect of irrigation scheduling showed that highest oil yield (681 kg ha-1) was harvested from two irrigations (I3) treatment, however statistically on par with the application of three irrigations (I4), while the significantly lowest oil yield (276 kg ha-1) was produced with the application of come-up irrigation (I1). The greater oil yield of linseed with the application of two irrigations was mainly due to increased seed yield. Similar results were reported [18,19]. As regard to levels of nitrogen. the maximum oil yield (633 kg ha-1) was obtained with the application of 90 kg N ha-1 (N3), however statistically on par with the application of 60 kg N ha-1 (624 kg ha-1), while the statistically lowest oil yield (386 kg ha- 1) was obtained with no nitrogen application (N0). The increment in oil yield of linseed was mainly due to application of proper dose of nitrogen and resulted higher seed yield. Similar results were reported [16,21].
Protein content and yield
Data presented in Table 3 showed that, the application of three and two irrigations were equally effective and obtained significantly higher protein content and yield. The lowest protein content and yield was observed with the application of come-up irrigation. This was might be due to water deficit during flowering and seed filling stages reduced protein content and yield. Similar results have been reported [19]. With respect to levels of nitrogen, protein content and yield were highest with the application of 90 kg N ha-1, however, statistically at par with the application of 60 kg N ha-1. Whereas, the significant reduction of protein content and yield were noticed under the no nitrogen treatment. Similar results have been reported [16,21,22].
Nitrogen content and uptake; N recovery and NUE
Data presented in Table 4 exhibited that, the nitrogen concentration in seed and stover were significantly higher due to the application of three irrigations (I4), however statistically on par with the application of two irrigations (I3). Three (I4) and two irrigations (I3) were equally effective and obtained significantly higher N uptake and recovery. Whereas, the NP was linear increase upto two irrigations (11.09 kg, kg N-1) but reduced with further (three) irrigation (9.78 kg, kg N-1). With respect to levels of nitrogen, N content in seed and stover; and N uptake were highest with the application of 90 kg ha-1 (N3), however statistically on par with the application of 60 kg ha-1 (N2). As for the apparent N recovery and NP by the plant were increase upto 60 kg N ha-1 (106% and 8.90 kg, kg N-1, respectively) but reduced with further increment in the nitrogen dose (80% and 6.57 kg, kg N-1, respectively). The higher dose of nitrogen showed less efficient utilization of nitrogen by crop may be due to comparatively more loss of nitrogen in soil. Similar results were reported [16,23]. The content of N increased in seed and stover might be due to increase in photosynthetic rate, which in turn promoted the growth. The resultant in increase the growth further increased the demand of these elements, which were thus absorbed in greater quantity. Similar results were reported [16,24].
Table 4: Nitrogen content and uptake of linseed as influenced by irrigation scheduling and levels of nitrogen.
Economics
Economics is the final criteria to evaluate the best treatments which are economically sound and that can be accepted by the farming community. Data presented in Table 5, showed that the application of three irrigations incurred more cost towards linseed production (₹ 31000). It is because of higher cost towards irrigation and labour imposed on it. The lower cost on production was recorded in comeup irrigation (₹ 28900 ha-1). The two irrigations gave the highest gross income (₹ 111679 ha-1) and net profit (₹ 81379) coupled with highest economic efficiency (₹ 803 ha-1 day-1) and broadest benefit-cost ratio (2.67). The minimum returns of above measures (₹ 51376 ha-1, ₹ 22476 ha-1, ₹ 247 ha-1 day-1 and 0.77, respectively), were obtained from come-up irrigation. The highest gross and net returns might be due to higher seed and fiber yields of linseed which was maximum in response to two irrigations. Similar results were reported [25]. As regard to levels of nitrogen, the economics of linseed increased with the application of N fertilizer compared to control treatment. The application of 90 kg N ha-1 incurred more cost of cultivation (₹ 30656 ha-1); and gave the highest gross income (₹ 107643 ha-1), net profit (₹ 76987 ha-1) with superior economic efficiency (₹ 753 ha-1 day-1) and benefit-cost ratio (2.49). The minimum cost and returns of above measures (₹ 29145 ha-1, ₹ 65177 ha-1, ₹ 36033 ha-1 , ₹ 371 ha-1 day-1 and 1.23, respectively), were obtained from control or no nitrogen treatment. The higher values of economic parameters were attributed to seed and fibre yields of linseed which also responded to higher N levels. Similar results were reported [16,26].
Table 5: Economics of linseed as influenced by irrigation scheduling and levels of nitrogen.
The interaction between irrigation scheduling and levels of nitrogen had a significant effect on B:C ratio (Table 6). The treatment receiving two irrigations coupled with 90 kg N ha-1 (I3N3) incurred highest B:C ratio (3.53) and followed by two irrigations with 60 kg N ha-1 (I3N2), while lowest B:C ratio was obtained from come-up irrigation without nitrogen (I1N0). The data clearly reported that the B:C ratio was significantly higher with suitable combination of irrigation scheduling and levels of nitrogen.
Table 6: Interaction effect of irrigation scheduling and levels of nitrogen on B:C ratio of linseed crop.

Conclusion

Based on the above findings it was concluded that irrigated thrice and twice and; use of 60 and 90 kg N ha-1 were equally effective and obtained higher fibre, seed, oil and protein yield along with higher gross return, net income and B:C ratio. With respect to interaction between irrigation scheduling and levels of nitrogen, two irrigations + 90 kg N ha-1 gave highest fibre and seed yield with highest net income and B:C ratio.

Acknowledgment

The authors acknowledge the support and guidance received by IGKV, Raipur and Director, Dept. of Agriculture, Govt. of C.G.

References

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