Journal of Plant Physiology & PathologyISSN: 2329-955X

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Research Article, J Plant Physiol Pathol Vol: 11 Issue: 6

Identification of Drought tolerance indices of wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) genotypes under water deficit conditions

Altaf Hussain Solangi*, Nusrat Solangi and Mukhtiar Khatoon Solangi

Department of Engineering, Rowan University, Glassboro, USA

Department of Genetics, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan

Corresponding Author:: Altaf Hussain Solangi,
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan; E-mail:

Received date: 30 December, 2021, Manuscript No. JPPP-21-32494;
Editor assigned date: 04 January, 2022, PreQC No. JPPP-21-32494 (PQ);
Reviewed date: 18 January 2022, QC No JPPP-21-32494;
Revised date: 24 January 2022, Manuscript No. JPPP-21-32494 (R);
Published date: 28 January, 2022, DOI: 10.37532/jppp.2021.10(1).283


Nowadays drought stress is one of the major abiotic factors to limiting access to high yield by restricting growth and development of wheat crop in arid and semi-arid areas. For the isolation of consequences of drought tolerance on morpho-physiological characters and experiment was conducted on ten bread wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) genotypes during the season of 2017-2018. Thus the experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replication consisting of two treatments (i.e. normal and water deficit) conditions. The variance among the treatment and genotypes were significant at 1% and 5% for all the characters however, treatment × genotypes had also meaningful association with majority of the characters except spike length and spikelets per spike. For the maximum performance of wheat genotypes under water limited conditions selection indices is a best tool to evaluate the genotypes best for water deficit conditions therefore, eight selection indices yield index, yield stability index, stress tolerance index,sensitivity drought tolerance, stress susceptibility index, tolerance index, mean productivity and geometric mean productivity were calculated for grains yield per plant and harvest index. From these indices it was concluded that Bhittai and NIA Sunder were the best genotypes under both conditions, SKD-1, Sassui and NIA Amber displayed better performance under optimum availability of water, Hamal and Kiran-95 were water stress tolerant while the NIA Sunder, Khirman and Marvi were the susceptible ones. Correlation of indices has also been worked out.For better understanding of association between the indices correlation among the indices were also calculated. Principal component analysis is the simplest way for better understanding and differentiation between reliable and susceptible genotypes therefore, it was carried out through Minitab

Keywords: Drought tolerance, bread wheat, means performance,correlation, selection indices,and PCA analysis


Bread wheat genome is composed of three varied genomes A, B and D obtained from different species therefore wheat is also known as ‘allopolyploid’ (AABBDD). As compared to other crops the genetics of wheat is more convoluted. The several and improved varieties of wheat are grouped into two main categories i.e. the winter and spring wheat [1]. Self-pollinated crop wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) belongs to Poaceae family. Based on the genome, wheat is classified in to three groups viz. diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid having 2 (2n=2x=14), 4 (2n=4x=28) and 6 (2n=6x=42) sets of chromosomes respectively [2]. The flour obtained from wheat grain is used to make various types of products included breads, pasta, biscuits, noodles, also beer and alcohol are the fermented products of wheat [3].

Whole Wheat varieties each year decreases yield about 15 to 25 kg per acre for saving or improvement of wheat need to introduce varieties of wheat [4] bio-fortification is very good and helpful solution of fulfillment of regular based diet [5]. Consequence of these is increasing interest in breeding for staple crops that have higher contents of micronutrients, naming bio-fortification. Cereals are the primary staple food used humankind for alleviating micronutrient deficiencies [6]. Although biotechnology and transgenetic crops offer us a new strategy to solve these malnutrition problems. Agricultural approaches are also useful to improve the micronutrient density in edible parts of field. The flour of wheat contains both macronutrient and micronutrient. Macronutrients percentage in grains higher than micronutrients unit values. For healthy life we have need of specific content of micronutrient in our wheat varieties for this our research scholars now days’ work on and focusing to develop and explore wheat varieties which have appropriate amount of micronutrients [7]. The plant breeders use different methodologies for example simple selection of characters of desire and complex molecular breeding to achieve successful results of plant breeding [8]. The plant breeding is most important and oldest techniques which starting from many years before in human civilization comes through ages to the modern shape [9]. Fortification of bread wheat current work fortification of food aimed to compensating for diets caused by main factors as micronutrients. Plants consider being the factories of proteins and several nutrients. Human beings more rely on the grain crops as compare to the meat vegetables eggs and meat products.

The inhabitants of Pakistan don’t afford vegetables pulses fruits and animals in their diet need to introduced nutritionally improved varieties in a continue process year by year. Most of assessment of current genotypes of wheat did not contain actual amount of micronutrient content which is utilizable by consumers [10]. For this regard development of micronutrients rich wheat varieties, which help to improve malnutrition of our country? Measurement of the nutritional value and other impacts of these nutritionally improved wheat varieties very helpful for alleviation of malnutrition and other related disease for pregnant women’s and stunt children. Through hybridization/genetic manipulation i.e. conventional plant breeding technique the bio fortified wheat crop is produced.

Materials and Method

Plant material collection

A field experiment was carried out by growing different wheat varieties at agriculture research institute of Tando jam and wheat research institute Sakrand during Rabi 2017-2018. At the time of flowering, hybridizations will be made through emasculation. Ten different varieties selected for this studies (Imdad, Skd-1, Skd-2, Sindhu, TD-1, TJ-83, Mehran, Anmol, Benazir and Zincol).

Data analysis: Transfer zinc and iron concentration between wheat varieties through progenitor lines to non-progenitor lines. Zincol female plantlets consider removing pollen grains, cross fertilization to the other male wheat varieties. Data analysis through statics used (version 8.1).


Soil managed for sowing ten wheat varieties by dibbling methods. Zincol wheat variety considers female (�??) other nine wheat varieties male plant �?? (for crossing). Wheat varieties were grown in a plot size of 1.2m × 3.5m (8 rows of 2.5 m length with 20 cm space between rows). Statistical analysis by randomized complete block design with three replicates selected from ten lines.


The analysis of current results showing, maximum plant height observed in (100 cm-105cm) Anmol. As compare to maximum days to heading observed in Sindhu-(80) followed by Mehran (75) (Figure 4) highly significant days to anthesis Skd-2, TD-1 and Zincol (10) (Figure 3). Maximum germination obtained in TD-1 (100) as compare Anmol have medium germination (98) (Table 1).

Pooled data for days to maturity Mehran wheat variety, (145) Benazir and Sindhu (130) Td-1- (100-120) (Table 2). Highest spike /length observed in (16) TJ-83 Mehran as compare other varieties are average (Figure 6). Highest grain per spike observed in TD- (172-122), Zincol (90), Sindhu (80) (Figure 2). Maximum seed index evaluate in SKD-2 (50), Sindhu (47).

Recent experimental results showing no significant difference for days of anthesis and days to maturity for zincol wheat variety. High concentrations of micronutrients were applying classical and modern breeding tools (i.e. genetic bio-fortification). Recent study on micronutrients density in wheat varieties showed no significant correlation between grain yield and Zn and Fe densities (Figures 1-7) (Tables 1-4).


Figure 1: Graphical representation of ten different wheat varieties and physiologicaltraits which helpful for bio-fortification.


Figure 2: Graphical representation of correlation of seed index and yield wheat.


Figure 3: Graphical representation of correlation of seed anthesis and seed maturity.


Figure 4: Plantlets of different wheat varieties showing variations.


Figure 5: Zincol wheat variety showing good yield quality.


Figure 6: Measurement of spike length for different wheat varieties through scale trip.


Figure 7: Graphical probability plot showing the difference of days for heading, anthesis, and maturity in different wheat varieties.

NOParentGerminationYield (kg/ha)Plant height/cmDays to headingDays to anthesis1IMDAD99620085-908082SKD-196524065-7565-7593SKD-29059309065104SINDHU98692088-908095TD-110059286555106TJ-83973954907287MEHRAN954742957588ANMOL984000100-1057199BENAZIR9648568764710ZINCOL996980956510

Table 1: Ten wheat varieties showing different qualitative trait for varied level.

S.NOParentDays to maturityTillers/PlantSpike /LengthGrains per spikeSeed index(grams)1IMDAD1307.813.27741.22SKD-111807-Aug12.555353SKD-21205.51170-7545-504SINDHU13006-Jul1270-80425TD-1100-120101372-122476TJ-8312081668367MEHRAN14561574398ANMOL12006-Jul127040.49BENAZIR130715693710ZINCOL1209129037

Table 2: Table showing varieties performed variably.

Wheat varietiesS.noImdadSKD-1SKD-2SindhuTD-1TJ-83MehranAnmolBenazirZincol1SourceDFSSMSFP2Tillers/Plant956.53336.281481060.000*3Germination993.210.35562.410.053*4Seed index9645.31271.701317925.30.000*5Plant height/cm93866.13429.5767.670.000*6Spike/length972.0038.00033303.810.000*7Days to maturity93356.3372.92217.660.000*8Yeild93.23E+0735855812700 00000.000*9Days for heading91940.7215.63355.770.000*10Days to anthesis924.32.73.2E +310.000*11Grain93004.53333.8375.40.001*

Table 3: Table showing ANOVA for ten wheat varieties, which representing significantly difference at the 1% probability level, *: P value.

S.NOPX F1ImdadSkd-1Skd-2SindhuTd-1Tj-83MehranAnmolBanezirZincole  VariableCo-efficientSTD ErrorTPVIF1Constant58.701345.14881.30.2059  2Days to heading0.206120.13371.540.13621.7 3Days to anthesis-0.733061.04963-0.70.49161.1 4Days to maturity-0.032170.09608-0.330.74071.5 5Germination-0.275660.40983-0.670.50761.2 6Grains0.068610.077420.890.38431.2 

Table 4: Showing weighted least squares linear regression of seed at the probability (0.01).


Plant breeding is the most everlasting solution to the problem, developing new micronutrient-rich plant genotypes for fulfillment of nutritional balance of diet. There are many essential micronutrients required for plants and humans, Fe and Zn more important among wheat genotypes. Analysis of variance for all traits are highly significant (Figure 1) for number of tillers per plant, germination, seed index, plant height, spike/length, days to maturity, yield, days to heading, days to anthesis, grain per spike (Table 3).

According to the observation of current research similar to Khan et al.; Cakmak et al.; Arya et al. [4,11,12]. Whereas days of anthesis and days of maturity of wheat did not co- related to each other in first filial generation of wheat (Table 4). Days of heading are correlated positively to the days of maturity of wheat in different wheat varieties of Pakistan Sindhu, TD-1, TJ-83, Zincol and SKD-2 showing maximum results for grain per spike of plant (Figures 5 and 7). Plant height co-related with branches of per plant. Seed index co-related to seed per spike at early maturity to seed maturity the genetic variation is the basis for crop improvement through plant breeding (Benazir, Sindhu and Zincol) these results coincides with Saltzman et al.; Mulualem et al. [5,13]. However other scholars said grain per spike and yield of wheat varieties based on the improvement of micronutrient concentration in plantlets of wheat [5,10,14,15].


It can be concluded from current research is very effective for future program of breeding and genetics. The bio fortified wheat crop is produced, when conventional method used one two year cross. Great genetic variability exists in ten different wheat varieties very useful for different wheat varieties grown by wheat breeder.


  1. Salem KFM, Zanaty AME, Esmail RM (2008) Assessing wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) genetic diversity using morphological characters and microsatellite markers. World J Agric Sci 4: 538-544.

    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]

  2. Abinasa M, Ayana A, Bultosa G (2011) Genetic variability, heritability and trait associations in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum l. var. durum) genotypes. Afr J Agric Res 6: 3972-3979.

    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]

  3. Bhushan B, Bharti S, Ojha A, Pandey M, Gourav SS, et al. (2013) Genetic variability, correlation coefficient and path analysis of some quantitative traits in bread wheat. J Wheat Researc 5: 21-26.

    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]

  4. Arya S, Mishra DK, Bornare SS (2013) Screening genetic variability in advance lines for drought tolerance of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum l.). The Bioscan 8: 1193-1196.

    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]

  5. Saltzman A, Andersson MS, Marfo DA, Lividini K, Oparinde A, et al. (2015) Bio-fortification techniques to improve food security. RMFSE pp: 1-9.

    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]

  6. Farooq M, Hussain M, Siddique KHM (2014) Drought stress in wheat during flowering and grain-filling periods. Crc Rev Plant Sci 33: 331-349.

    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]

  7. Arati Y, Hanchinal RR, Nadaf HL, Desai SA, Biradar S, et al. (2015) Genetic variability and heritability estimates for yield attributes and leaf rust resistance in F3 population of wheat (Triticum aestivum l.). The Bioscan 10: 935-938.

    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]

  8. Khan GH, Vaishnavi R, Shikari AB, Dar ZA (2015)Genotypic variability, partial regression analysis and identification of early maturing wheat suitable for Kashmir valley. The Bioscan 10: 763-767.

    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]

  9. Rehman SU, Abid MA, Bilal M, Ashraf J, Liaqat S, et al. (2015) Genotype by trait analysis and estimates of heritability of wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) under drought and control conditions. Basic Res J Agric Sci Riv 4: 127-134.

    [Crossref] [ Google Scholar ]

  10. Birol E, Meenakshi JV, Oparinde A, Perez S, Tomlins K (2015) Developing country consumers acceptance of biofortified foods a synthesis. Food Secur 7: 555-568.

    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]

  11. Cakmak I, Pfeiffer WH, Mcclafferty B (2010) Biofortification of durum wheat with zinc and iron. Cereal Chem 87: 10-20.

    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]

  12. Khan I, Khalil IH, Din N (2007) Genetic parameters for yield traits in wheat under irrigated and rainfed environments. Sarhad J Agric 23: 973-980.

    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]

  13. Mulualem T (2015) Application of bio-fortification through plant breeding to improve the value of staple crops. J Biomed Biotechnol 3: 11-19.

    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]

  14. Paltridge NG, Milham PJ, Monasterio JIO, Velu G, Yasmin Z, et al. (2012) Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry as a tool for zinc, iron and selenium analysis in whole grain wheat. Plant Soil 361: 261-269.

    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]

  15. Baloch MJ, Channa GM, Jatoi WA, Baloch W, Rind IH, et al. (2015) Genetic characterization in 5 × 5 diallel crosses for yield traits in bread wheat. Sarhad J Agric 32: 127-133.

    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]

international publisher, scitechnol, subscription journals, subscription, international, publisher, science

Track Your Manuscript

Awards Nomination