VEGETOS: An International Journal of Plant ResearchOnline ISSN: 2229-4473
Print ISSN: 0970-4078

Research Article, Vegetos Vol: 29 Issue: 3

Integrated Management of DieBack and Fruit Rot of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

Santoshreedy Machenahalli1*, VB Nargund2, Byadgi AS2 and Yashoda Hegde2
1Central Coffee Research Institute, Chikmagaluru, Karnataka, India
2Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural sciences, Karnataka, India
Corresponding author : Santoshreedy Machenahalli
Central Coffee Research Institute, Chikmagaluru, Chikmagaluru -577117, Karnataka, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: July 21, 2016 Accepted: August 19, 2016 Published: August 26, 2016
Citation: Machenahalli S, Nargund VB, Byadgi AS, Hegde Y (2016) Integrated Management of Die-Back and Fruit Rot of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). Vegetos 29:3. doi: 10.5958/2229-4473.2016.00087.2

Abstract

Integrated Management of DieBack and Fruit Rot of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

Fruit rot and die-back diseases are major yield limiting factor in all chilli growing areas of India. Integrated management of chilli fruit rot disease during kharif 2012 and 2013 at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences Dharwad, Karnataka, indicated that adoptive module including seed treatment with carboxin + thiram at 2 g/kg, seedling dip in P. fluorescens (10 g/l), spray with neem oil (10 ml/l), hexaconazole, propicoanzole (0.1%) and carbendazim + mancozeb (0.2%) showed least seedling infection (7.06%), die-back incidence (1.21%) and severity (9.30 PDI), fruit rot incidence (4.47%), severity (2.68 PDI) with high dry chilli yield (8.92 q/ha) and C:B ratio (2.44)...

Keywords: Chilli; Fruit rot; Die-back; Integrated disease management

Keywords

Chilli; Fruit rot; Die-back; Integrated disease management

Introduction

Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the very popular spice and vegetable crop grown worldwide. It is also known for its medicinal and health benefiting properties. India is the largest producer of chilli, grown over an area of 0.79 m. ha with an annual production of 0.13 m. tons with the productivity of 1.6 m tons/ha [1]. Chilli is suffering from several economically important diseases like damping off, die back, fruit rot, leaf spots, leaf curl, wilt etc. which are posing a serious threat to the successful large-scale cultivation. The fruit rot disease is more severe in India because of its complex nature, caused by fungi Colletotrichum spp. (C. capsici, C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum), also Alternaria alternata and Fusarium spp. is major yield limiting factor. These pathogens also cause death of vegetative branch from tip to downwards, reduces yield from 10% to 80% of the crop production [2]. Fruit rot causes extensive damage and considerably reduce the market value of the produce [3]. It is essential to manage the disease in an integrated manner in which fungicides, botanicals and bio-agents play an integral part and becoming more relevant in the present day disease management scenario. Therefore in this present paper biointensive, adoptive (IDM) and chemical modules evaluation results were presented which are of utmost concern to identify best module for management of disease with maximum cost benefit ratio which will help the farming community to a greater extent.

Materials and Methods

Field experiment was conducted to develop integrated diseases management strategies. Experiments were laid out in four modules namely bio intensive module for fruit rot disease and insect pests (M1), bio-intensive module for disease with chemical pesticides for insect pests (M2), Adoptive module (M3) chemical intensive module (M4). The study was conducted during kharif 2012 and 2013 at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences Dharwad, Karnataka state, India. The fruit rot and die-back severity was assessed following the score chart mentioned by Mayee and Datar. The Byadgi Dabbi variety seedlings were planted in plot size of 12.0 × 9.0 m with spacing 60.0 × 60.0 cm on 25th June 2012 and 2013. There were four modules with five replications were laid out in a randomized complete block design, details of the modules mentioned in Table 1. Seedling rot incidence, die-back and fruit rot Incidence and severity was recorded, statistical analysis was carried out as per the procedures given by Panse and Sukhatme [3]. Details of soil properties and environmental conditions at experimental site are given in Appendices I, II and III.
Fruit rot and die-back score chart:
Grade Per cent fruit area infection / Branches infected per plant Reaction
0 0 Immune
1 1-10 Resistant
3 11 – 25 Moderately resistant
5 26 – 50 Moderately susceptible
7 51 – 75 Susceptible
9 > 75 Highly susceptible
Table 1: Details of the management modules.
Per cent disease incidence of fruit rot was calculated by
image
Per cent Disease Index was calculated to estimate the disease severity of fruit rot disease as per the formula given by Wheeler [4].
image
Per cent disease incidence of die-back was calculated by
image
Die-back severity was estimated as per the formula
image

Results and Discussion

No single specific management program could eliminate chilli fruit rot complex. Effective management of such complex diseases usually involves the integrated management strategies to reduce the use of fungicides, to enforce eco-friendly low cost and effective management by combination of cultural, biological, chemical management with intrinsic resistance strategies. Soil solarization and application of bio agents with organic matter manages the nursery diseases of solanaceous vegetables effectively [5]. Hence, in the present investigation emphasis was given on seed treatment by chemical and bio fungicides to eliminate primary inoculum and evaluated four management modules which include bio-intensive, chemical and adoptive by combination of both biological and chemical management.
Kharif 2012
The results of kharif 2012 indicated that (Table 2 and 3) least seedling rot infection (7.31%) was recorded in chemical module which was on par with adoptive module (7.33%). At 93 DAT (days after transplanting) M3 (Adoptive module) recorded the least fruit rot incidence (1.60%) which is on par with M4 (Chemical intensive module) (1.72%), M2 (Bio intensive module for disease) (2.04%) and M1 (Bio intensive module for both disease and insects) (2.31%). The least fruit rot severity (1.20 PDI) was recorded in M3 (Adoptive module) which is also on par with M4 (Chemical intensive module), M2 (Bio intensive module for disease) and M1 (Biointensive module for both disease and insects). At 100 DAT M3 (Adoptive module) recorded the least fruit rot incidence (4.84%) which is on par with M4 (Chemical intensive module) (6.06%) followed by M2 (Bio intensive module for disease) (8.30 per cent. The least fruit rot severity (2.64 PDI) recorded in M3 (Adoptive module) which is also on par with M4 (Chemical intensive module) (3.07 PDI). At 135 DAT M3 (Adoptive module) recorded the least fruit rot incidence (4.58%) followed by M4 (Chemical intensive module) (6.42%). The least fruit rot severity (3.69 PDI) recorded in M3 (Adoptive module) which is on par with M4 (Chemical intensive module) (4.23 PDI). The least die-back incidence (1.20%) was recorded in M3 (Adoptive module) which was on par with M4 (Chemical intensive module) (1.40%). The least die-back severity (10.40 PDI) was recorded in M3 (Adoptive module) followed by M4 (Chemical intensive module) (12.80 PDI).
Table 2: Management modules for chilli fruit rot disease during kharif 2012-13.
Table 3: Economics of disease management modules against chilli fruit rot and dieback disease during 2012-13.
The yield was significantly superior in M3 (Adoptive module) (9.02 q/ha) with 2.47 cost benefit ratio, which was on par with M4 (Chemical intensive module) (8.80 q/ha, 2.34 C: B ratio), whereas the least yield (5.53 q/ha, 1.67 C:B ratio) was recorded in M1 (Bio intensive module for both disease and insects).
Kharif 2013
The results of kharif 2013 indicated (Table 4 and 5) that least seedling rot infection (6.78%) was recorded in adoptive module which was on par with chemical module (6.93%). At 93 DAT M3 (Adoptive module) recorded the least fruit rot incidence (1.48%) which was on par with M4 (Chemical intensive module) (1.60%) and M2 (Bio intensive module for disease) (1.98%). The least fruit rot severity (1.00 PDI) was recorded in M3 (Adoptive module) which was on par with M4 (Chemical intensive module), M2 (Bio intensive module for disease) and M3 (Biointensive module for both disease and insects). At 100 DAT M3 (Adoptive module) recorded the least fruit rot incidence (5.05%) which was on par with M4 (Chemical intensive module) (5.87%) followed by M2 (Bio intensive module for disease) (9.00%). The least fruit rot severity (2.28 PDI) recorded in M3 (Adoptive module) which was on par with M4 (Chemical intensive module) (2.90 PDI). At 135 DAT M3 (Adoptive module) recorded the least fruit rot incidence (4.40%) which was on par with M4 (Chemical intensive module) (6.39%) followed by M2 (Bio intensive module for disease) (8.87%). The least fruit rot severity (3.40 PDI) recorded in M3 (Adoptive module) which was on par with M2 (Chemical intensive module) (3.90 PDI) followed by M2 (Bio intensive module for disease) (6.86 PDI).
Table 4: Management modules for chilli fruit rot disease during kharif 2013-14.
Table 5: Economics of disease management modules against chilli fruit rot and dieback disease during kharif 2013-14.
The least die-back incidence (1.00%) was recorded in M4 (Chemical intensive module) which was on par with M3 (Adoptive module) (1.20%) followed by M2 (Bio intensive module for disease) (2.10%). The least die-back severity (8.20 PDI) was recorded in M3 (Adoptive module) which was on par with M4 (Chemical intensive module) (9.40 PDI). The yield was significantly superior in M3 (Adoptive module) (8.80 q/ha) with 2.41 cost benefit ratio, which was on par with M4 (Chemical intensive module) (8.60 q/ha, 2.29 C: B ratio) followed by M2 (Bio intensive module for disease) (5.90 q/ha, 1.61 C:B ratio).
The pooled results of kharif 2012 and 2013 indicated (Table 6) that least seedling rot incidence (7.06%) was recorded in M3 (Adoptive module) which was on par with M4 (Chemical intensive module) (7.12%) followed by M2 (Bio intensive module for disease) (16.06%). Combination of T. harzianum 5.0 g + P. fluorescens 5.0 g was most effective in management of seedling rot causing seed borne fungal pathogens [6]. In M3 (Adoptive module) least fruit rot incidence (4.47%) was recorded which was on par with M4 (Chemical intensive module) (6.02%) followed by M2 (Bio intensive module for disease) (8.33%). The least fruit rot severity (2.68 PDI) was recorded in M3 (Adoptive module) which was on par with M4 (Chemical module) (2.98 PDI) followed by M2 (Bio intensive module for disease) (5.54 PDI). Among management modules, biological, chemical and Adoptive (Integrated disease management) module. Adoptive module was superior to biological and chemical modules in chilli fruit rot management [7-9]. The least die-back incidence (1.21%) was recorded in both M3 (Adoptive module) and M4 (Chemical intensive module) followed by M2 (Bio intensive module for disease) (2.05%). The least die-back severity (9.30 PDI) was recorded in M3 (Adoptive module) which was on par with M4 (Chemical module) (11.11 PDI) followed by M2 (Bio intensive module for disease) (18.10 PDI). Difenconazole 25 EC and pyraclostrobin 20 WG at 0.1% concentration and among five combiproduct fungicides, tricyclazole 18% + mancozeb 62% WP and pyraclostrobin 5% + metiram 55% were found effective against fruit rot and dieback disease [10].
Table 6: Pooled analysis management modules for chilli fruit rot disease during kharif 2012-13 and 2013-14.
The yield was significantly superior in M3 (Adoptive module) (8.92 q/ha) with 1.25 cost benefit ratio, which was on par with M4 (Chemical intensive module) (8.71 q/ha, 2.32 C:B ratio) followed by M2 (Bio intensive module for disease) (6.0 q/ha, 1.64 C:B ratio), whereas least yield (5.36 q/ha, 1.62 C:B ratio) was recorded in M1(Bio intensive module for disease and insects). As no single specific management practice could eliminate chilli fruit rot complex here adoptive module involves the integrated management strategies at right time application reduces the use of fungicides, and it enforces eco-friendly low cost and effective management of chilli fruit rot.

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